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(975 posts)
Mon Oct 9, 2023, 10:06 AM Oct 2023

On This Day: Accidental explosion triggers end of Chinese imperial dynasties - Oct. 9, 1911

(edited from Wikipedia)
Wuchang Uprising

The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang China, beginning the Xinhai Revolution that successfully overthrew China's last imperial dynasty. It was led by elements of the New Army, influenced by revolutionary ideas from Tongmenghui. The uprising and the eventual revolution directly led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty with almost three centuries of imperial rule, and the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC).


In 1895, China was decisively defeated by Japan in the First Sino-Japanese War. Disillusioned with the monarchy and the Qing government, many revolutionary groups began emerging across the country. In 1905, revolutionary leaders such as Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren met in Tokyo to discuss a merger between different revolutionary groups. A new group known as Tongmenghui was formed after this meeting.

There were two revolutionary groups in the Wuhan area, the Literary Society and the Progressive Association. These groups, led by Jiang Yiwu and Sun Wu respectively, worked closely together as commander and chief of staff of the revolutionary efforts in Wuhan. Beginning in September, 1911, these two groups began negotiating with the Tongmenghui for possible collaboration in the next uprising.

[Accidental explosion]

On 9 October, while Sun Wu was supervising the making of explosive devices in Hankou, one of the devices exploded unexpectedly, inflicting serious injuries on Sun. When he was hospitalized, the hospital staff discovered his identity and alerted the Qing authorities.

With their identities revealed, the revolutionaries in the New Army stationed in Wuchang were facing imminent arrest by the Qing authorities. The decision was made by Jiang Yiwu of the Literary Society to immediately launch the uprising, but the plot was leaked to the Viceroy of Huguang, and he ordered a crackdown of the revolutionaries, arresting and executing several prominent members.

[Garrison seized]

On the evening of 10 October, Wu Zhaolin as provisional commander led the revolutionary elements of the New Army staged a mutiny against the Qing garrison in Huguang, capturing the residence of the Viceroy in the process along with securing strategic points in the city after intense fighting. As the Viceroy escaped, the Qing garrison fell into disarray. Between the night of 10 October and noon of 11th, "more than 500 Manchu soldiers were killed" with "over 300 captured".


On 11 October, the mutineers established a military government representing the Hubei province, and persuaded one of the high-ranking officers in the New Army, Li Yuanhong, to be the temporary leader.

In response to the uprising, the Qing government called for the help of Yuan Shikai and the Beiyang Army to march toward Wuchang. For the revolutionaries, Huang Xing would arrive at Wuhan in early November to take over the command. Positions of revolutionary forces in Wuhan were subsequently attacked by the Beiyang Army, and the imperial troops were soon able to recapture Hankou on 1 November and Hanyang on 27 November. The offensive was halted after the capture of these two positions, as Yuan Shikai began to secretly negotiate with the revolutionaries.

After the successful uprising in Wuchang, the revolutionaries sent telegraphs to other provinces and asked them to follow their suit, upon which eighteen provinces in Southern and Central China agreed to secede from the Qing government by the end of December, 1911.

In the same month, Sun [Yat-sen] returned to China to participate in the provisional presidential election and was elected. Representatives from the seceding provinces met on 1 January 1912, and declared the founding of the Chinese Republic as Sun was sworn in as the first president. The new republic then negotiated with Yuan Shikai to pressure the Qing government to surrender, offering the presidency in the process. On 12 February 1912, Empress Dowager Longyu, on behalf of Aisin Gioro Puyi, the Xuantong emperor, announced the abdication of the Qing throne, marking the end of the dynasty.


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On This Day: Accidental explosion triggers end of Chinese imperial dynasties - Oct. 9, 1911 (Original Post) jgo Oct 2023 OP
Spent time in Zhongshan over the past 30 years... OAITW r.2.0 Oct 2023 #1

OAITW r.2.0

(25,302 posts)
1. Spent time in Zhongshan over the past 30 years...
Mon Oct 9, 2023, 10:43 AM
Oct 2023

My company has a sales office there.

I toured the official residence of Sun Yat Sen. I guess he was considered the first modern leader of China.

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