Those are the odds that Kerry's EXIT poll percentage would
EXCEED his ACTUAL reported vote percentage by MORE THAN THE
MARGIN OF ERROR in 16 out of 51 States by chance alone. That
is exactly what occurred on Nov. 2.
I know that is hard to fathom. But here is the data. And here
is the calculation, based on the number of individuals polled
in each state and the corresponding Margin of Error (MOE).
The chances of a given state falling outside the MOE = 1/20 =
.05. The calculation for the probability that 16 out of 51
states would fall outside the MOE is a simple one which uses
the BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION:
The Probability (P) that at least 16 out of 51 states would
deviate beyond the exit poll MOE is:
P = 1-BINOMDIST(16,51,0.05,TRUE)
This returns P= 0.0000000218559% or 1 out of 4,575,415,347!
Here is how the odds decrease as the number of states (N)
exceeding the MOE increase:
N>MOE Odds
3: 1 out of 4
5: 1 out of 24
8: 1 out of 139
10: 1 out of 2707
12: 1 out of 1,037,879
14: 1 out of 57,503,169
15: 1 out of 490,978,624
16: 1 out of 4,575,415,347
The individual state probabilities are calculated using the
Normal distribution Function.
For example, consider Florida:
The probability that Kerry's 50.51% exit poll percentage would
decline to 47.47% in the actual vote (a 4.04% deviation, far
outside the 1.84% MOE) is equal to .06%.
This calculation is based on the FL exit poll sample size of
2846, which produces a MOE of 1.84%. The corresponding
standard deviation (StDev) is 0.94%. The StDev is plugged into
the normal distribution function, along with the exit poll and
reported vote percentages.
The probability that this deviation would occur due to chance
is:
.06% = 100*NORMDIST(47.47%,50.51%,.94%,TRUE)
Here are the Exit Poll and Voting Results for all the states:
Size refers to the exit poll sample size for the given state.
The percentages are Kerry's Exit Polls and reported Votes.
............Kerry
State Size Exit Vote Diff StDev MoE Prob >MoE? Favor
DE 770 58.50% 53.54% -4.96% 1.80% 3.53% 0.29 yes Bush
NH 1849 55.40% 50.51% -4.89% 1.16% 2.28% 0.00 yes Bush
VT 685 65.00% 60.20% -4.80% 1.91% 3.74% 0.60 yes Bush
SC 1735 46.00% 41.41% -4.59% 1.20% 2.35% 0.01 yes Bush
NE 785 36.76% 32.32% -4.44% 1.78% 3.50% 0.64 yes Bush
AK 910 40.50% 36.08% -4.42% 1.66% 3.25% 0.38 yes Bush
AL 730 41.00% 37.00% -4.00% 1.85% 3.63% 1.53 yes Bush
NC 2167 48.00% 44.00% -4.00% 1.07% 2.11% 0.01 yes Bush
NY 1452 63.00% 59.18% -3.82% 1.31% 2.57% 0.18 yes Bush
CT 872 58.50% 55.10% -3.40% 1.69% 3.32% 2.24 yes Bush
RI 809 64.00% 60.61% -3.39% 1.76% 3.45% 2.68 Bush
MA 889 66.00% 62.63% -3.37% 1.68% 3.29% 2.21 yes Bush
PA 1930 54.35% 51.00% -3.35% 1.14% 2.23% 0.16 yes Bush
MS 798 43.26% 40.00% -3.26% 1.77% 3.47% 3.29 Bush
OH 1963 52.10% 49.00% -3.10% 1.13% 2.21% 0.30 yes Bush
FL 2846 50.51% 47.47% -3.03% 0.94% 1.84% 0.06 yes Bush
MN 2178 54.50% 51.52% -2.98% 1.07% 2.10% 0.27 yes Bush
UT 798 30.50% 27.55% -2.95% 1.77% 3.47% 4.78 Bush
ID 559 33.50% 30.61% -2.89% 2.11% 4.14% 8.60 Bush
AZ 1859 47.00% 44.44% -2.56% 1.16% 2.27% 1.38 yes Bush
VA 1000 47.96% 45.45% -2.50% 1.58% 3.10% 5.66 Bush
LA 1669 44.50% 42.42% -2.08% 1.22% 2.40% 4.49 Bush
IL 1392 57.00% 55.00% -2.00% 1.34% 2.63% 6.78 Bush
WI 2223 52.50% 50.51% -1.99% 1.06% 2.08% 3.00 Bush
WV 1722 45.25% 43.43% -1.82% 1.20% 2.36% 6.54 Bush
NM 1951 51.30% 49.49% -1.81% 1.13% 2.22% 5.54 Bush
CO 2515 49.10% 47.47% -1.63% 1.00% 1.95% 5.15 Bush
IN 926 41.00% 39.39% -1.61% 1.64% 3.22% 16.42 Bush
GA 1536 43.00% 41.41% -1.59% 1.28% 2.50% 10.69 Bush
MO 2158 47.50% 46.00% -1.50% 1.08% 2.11% 8.17 Bush
NJ 1520 55.00% 53.54% -1.46% 1.28% 2.51% 12.67 Bush
WA 2123 54.95% 53.54% -1.41% 1.09% 2.13% 9.70 Bush
IA 2502 50.65% 49.49% -1.15% 1.00% 1.96% 12.41 Bush
AR 1402 46.60% 45.45% -1.15% 1.34% 2.62% 19.55 Bush
KY 1034 41.00% 40.00% -1.00% 1.55% 3.05% 26.01 Bush
OK 1539 35.00% 34.00% -1.00% 1.27% 2.50% 21.63 Bush
MI 2452 52.50% 51.52% -0.98% 1.01% 1.98% 16.47 Bush
NV 2116 49.35% 48.48% -0.87% 1.09% 2.13% 21.29 Bush
ME 1968 54.75% 54.08% -0.66% 1.13% 2.21% 27.80 Bush
MD 1000 57.00% 56.57% -0.43% 1.58% 3.10% 39.18 Bush
DC 795 91.00% 90.91% -0.09% 1.77% 3.48% 47.96 Bush
MT 640 39.76% 39.80% 0.04% 1.98% 3.87% 50.72 Kerry
OR 1064 51.20% 52.00% 0.80% 1.53% 3.00% 69.91 Kerry
HI 499 53.30% 54.55% 1.25% 2.24% 4.39% 71.10 Kerry
TX 1671 37.00% 38.38% 1.38% 1.22% 2.40% 87.10 Kerry
TN 1774 41.50% 43.00% 1.50% 1.19% 2.33% 89.68 Kerry
CA 1919 54.00% 55.56% 1.56% 1.14% 2.24% 91.35 Kerry
SD 1495 37.76% 39.39% 1.63% 1.29% 2.53% 89.65 Kerry
ND 649 34.00% 36.36% 2.36% 1.96% 3.85% 88.58 Kerry
KS 654 35.00% 37.37% 2.37% 1.96% 3.83% 88.76 Kerry
Avg 1450 49.18% 47.38% -1.80% 1.42% 2.79% 21.67 Bush
Med 1507.5 49.23% 47.47% -1.81% 1.29% 2.52% 6.66 Bush