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His own personal struggles with lust, the Manichean and Gnostic dualism he was involved with prior to his conversion to Christianity, and pervasive sexism of his era, strongly influenced his views against human sexuality which would involve anything but procreation and education of children.
What he did wrong was apply his own rigid reaction to his previous life of sexual indulgence to everybody else. He never fully renounced the Manichean idea that every earthly pleasure, even legitimate ones, was evil. His influence persists to this day, especially in the realm of sex and marriage.