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Response to ann--- (Reply #13)

Mon Jun 29, 2015, 05:48 AM

82. "There were not "separate" schools, restrooms, water fountains, seats a diner counters"

Cotton Club in New York City

And the School District of Philadelphia (pre-Brown v Board of Ed.) -

In the early 20th century, Philadelphia had a higher percentage of blacks in its public schools than any other big city. And the proportion grew steadily - from 5.3 percent in 1910 to 47 percent in 1960.

In part, this was because the city has long housed two separate systems. In 1960, the heyday of urban Catholicism, 52 percent of white children went to parochial schools, but just 8 percent of black students did.

But the public schools were also segregated, because officials simply ignored the 1881 state law outlawing discrimination in education. In 1908, School Superintendent Martin Brumbaugh created several all-black elementary schools to employ black teachers, who were prohibited from teaching white students. Brumbaugh, who later became governor, had also concluded that black students were unfit to learn an academic curriculum.

"The difference between Philadelphia and the Southern states," said V.P. Franklin, a historian who wrote a book called The Education of Black Philadelphia, "is that since it was against the law . . . to segregate students, they segregated the teachers. So a form of de jure segregation was maintained."

http://articles.philly.com/2004-07-11/news/25371735_1_black-teachers-black-students-black-children


And at that time in the early '50s, my mother and her friends - all of whom had degrees in secondary education, were not allowed to teach at the secondary level - i.e, high schools, until AFTER Brown vs Board. This is something that my mother railed against for years. Some of her friends remained in elementary schools until retirement, although one bucked it and eventually became a (regional) District Superintendent before retirement.

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