Judi LynnJudi Lynn's Journal
Archive Obtained and Published Previously Secret Records on Kissingers Role in Secret Bombing Campaigns in Cambodia, Illegal Domestic Spying, Support for Dictators, and Dirty Wars Abroad
Washington, D.C., November 29, 2023 - Henry Kissingers death today brings new global attention to the long paper trail of secret documents recording his policy deliberations, conversations, and directives on many initiatives for which he became famousdétente with the USSR, the opening to China, and Middle East shuttle diplomacy, among them.
This historical record also documents the darker side of Kissingers controversial tenure in power: his role in the overthrow of democracy and the rise of dictatorship in Chile; disdain for human rights and support for dirty, and even genocidal, wars abroad; secret bombing campaigns in Southeast Asia; and involvement in the Nixon administrations criminal abuses, among them the secret wiretaps of his own top aides.
To contribute to a balanced and more comprehensive evaluation of Kissingers legacy, the National Security Archive has compiled a small, select dossier of declassified recordsmemos, memcons, and telcons that Kissinger wrote, said and/or readdocumenting TOP SECRET deliberations, operations and policies during Kissingers time in the White House and Department of State.
The revealing telconsover 30,000 pages of daily transcripts of Kissingers phone conversations which he secretly recorded and had his secretaries transcribewere taken by Kissinger as personal papers when he left office in 1977 and used, selectively, to write his best-selling memoirs. The National Security Archive forced the U.S. government to recover these official records by preparing a lawsuit that argued that both the State Department and the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) had inappropriately allowed classified U.S. government documentation to be removed from their control.
5:06 / 10:01 The Sound of Ancient Languages. Full Version. You Haven't Seen Anything Like This Before!
Premiered Oct 14, 2023
Dive into the fascinating realm of ancient languages with our enthralling video. Encounter the alluring sounds of historical civilizations through the skillful portrayal of lifelike characters. Embark on a journey through time, where you'll be serenaded by the melodious rhythms of forgotten dialects, each meticulously researched and expertly brought to life. From the enigmatic intonations of Egyptian hieroglyphics to the lyrical elegance of Latin, allow the echoes of the past to transport you to a world of linguistic marvels. Explore the linguistic legacy of our forebears and witness the enduring influence of language in safeguarding the heritage of ancient societies. Get ready to be spellbound as the voices of history's long-forgotten resurface once more.
Story by Carley Rojas Avila
Nestled in the mountains high above the Apurímac River, the ruins of Choquequirao are some of the most unique and fascinating Incan ruins in Peru. Practically unheard of until just several years ago, Choquequirao, in many ways, resembles Machu Picchu.
In other ways, Choquequirao and Machu Picchu couldn't be more different. There's no luxurious glass-topped train to reach Choquequirao, and certainly no backpacker town like Aguas Calientes just a short drive away. Choquequirao is remote, accessible only by a strenuous 4-day hike through the mountains.
In this ultimate guide to Choquequirao, Peru, we share everything you need to know to plan your visit. From the best Choquequirao trek recommendations to the ins and outs of what to expect once you make it to the ruins, you'll find the advice you need to make your visit to Choquequirao an unforgettable one.
Have you ever heard of Choquequirao? Our guide to the Choquequirao Trek to the Choquequirao Ruins shares just how to visit this unbeatable site.
© Provided by Explorers Away
Choquequirao is located in the Cusco province, just above the Apurímac River which divides the provinces of Cusco and Apurímac. About 27 miles (45 km) southwest of Machu Picchu, Choquequirao is found within an area filled with countless ruins at the heart of the former Incan empire.
Story by Jade h
Machu Picchu, the ancient Inca citadel perched on a mountain ridge in Peru, is one of the most stunning and mysterious archaeological sites in the world. For decades, historians have relied on Spanish colonial documents to date the construction and occupation of this marvel of engineering and architecture. However, a new study has challenged the conventional wisdom and suggested that Machu Picchu may be older than previously believed.
The study, published in the journal Antiquity, used radiocarbon dating technology to analyze human remains found in a cemetery at Machu Picchu. The researchers used a technique called accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure the amount of carbon-14 in the bones, which decays at a known rate over time. By comparing the carbon-14 levels in the samples with those of known age, the researchers were able to estimate when the people lived and died.
The results showed that Machu Picchu was in use from about A.D. 1420 to A.D. 1530, making it at least 20 years older than the accepted historical record suggests. According to the documents written by Spanish conquistadors, Machu Picchu was built after 1440 by the Inca emperor Pachacuti, who expanded the Inca empire to its greatest extent. However, the radiocarbon dating evidence indicates that the site may have been built by his predecessor, Viracocha, or even earlier.
This finding has important implications for our understanding of Inca history and culture. It suggests that Machu Picchu was not a mere retreat for the Inca elite, but a strategic and ceremonial center that played a key role in the consolidation and expansion of the Inca state. It also challenges the reliability of using colonial documents as the sole source of information for dating ancient ruins in the Americas. The study argues that perhaps the time has come for the radiocarbon evidence to assume priority in reconstructions of the chronology of the Inca emperors and the dating of Inca monumental sites such as Machu Picchu.
Machu Picchu is a remarkable example of the architectural and engineering skills of the Inca civilization. The site consists of about 200 structures, including temples, palaces, terraces, and fountains, built on a steep mountain ridge about 2,420 meters above sea level. The Inca used simple tools and local materials to carve and fit the stones, some weighing more than 50 tons, without using mortar or wheels. They also developed sophisticated systems of water management and agriculture to sustain the site.
(Isn't it nightmarish realizing the world has relied upon the writings of the people who massacred, plundered, destroyed the Inca culture to describe the reality of the world they destroyed, revealed to them through the language of their victims they didn't actually understand, for authentic understanding of the ancient civilization, clearly advanced, they vaporized? Never even concsidered questioning it?)
After all, why would they lie about the people they murdered, after stealing their country and destroying their lives?
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