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Wed Jul 31, 2013, 05:34 PM

(Vehicle to Grid V2G) Articles and Papers on Grid Integrated Vehicles and EVs

EE Global Interview (May 12, 2010)
Moderator: Well, we’re here with Jon Wellinghoff, Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission Chairman. Thanks so much for giving us some of your time. Chairman Wellinghoff: You’re very welcome.

Moderator: I want to talk to you today about the smart grid. Now, there’s a lot of talk about the smart grid in the industry right now. If you could if us a little bit of insight on the infrastructure of the existing transmission grid and what you guys are doing to make it more integrated so that smart grid technology can actually come to fruition.

Wellinghoff: Well, we’re trying to do everything we can to encourage the proliferation of technology for the smart grid. We have some statutory authority that allows us to provide incentives for smart grid-type upgrades to the transmission side that is our responsibility. FERC is over the wholesale side of the grid, and we do what we can to encourage the transmission owners and operators to upgrade it with the latest and best technology to make sure that that side operates well.

We also do what we can to encourage the wholesale markets to place into their tariffs ways for consumers that do have smart grid-enabled appliances or businesses and industries that have smart grid-enabled loads that can actually use those in ways that can make the grid work more efficiently. For example, in an area of the Mid-Atlantic from New Jersey to Chicago called PJM, which is a grid operator, an independent grid operator under our jurisdiction, they have tariffs in place that allow, right now, about 9,000 megawatts of what is called demand response to participate in making the grid more efficient. And essentially, it is part of integrating the smart grid into the system, because they control their loads and they move their loads in ways that the grid operator directs them to through communications, and, by doing that, they get paid to do it, so there’s some tremendous things going on there.

We’re also working with some very innovative ideas as part of that PJM system. There’s a professor at the University of Delaware by the name of Willett Kempton, and he’s converted five formerly gasoline cars to all-electric and put in electric motors and lithium ion batteries, and, in addition to using them as electric cars and doing testings on how much they drive and the performance and so forth, when he plugs them into the grid, he’s got a box in that car that’s got electronic equipment in a very small module. That electronic equipment can wirelessly signal to the grid operator, PJM, and the grid operator signals back to them what’s called a regulation signal, meaning a signal that’s needed to determine what’s
stabilizing the grid. Based upon that signal, the car’s battery can actually follow the signal as it’s plugged in, and, as it’s being charged, as the charge is going up, it follows the regulation signal and provides regulation services to the grid just like a generator.

Moderator: That’s very cool.

Wellinghoff: Right now the generator’s providing it. The coolest thing is ...

Moderator: That’s really cool ...

Wellinghoff: They’re getting paid to do it.

Moderator: [laughter]

Wellinghoff: They’re charging the car, and they’re getting paid $7 to $10 per car per day to provide regulation service while they’re getting charged. It’d be like driving into a gas station filling your car up, and they guy coming out and giving you a $20 bill.

Moderator: So how many stories like this are out in the country right now trying different types of technologies to make the different applications that a smart grid has work?

More at: http://www.ferc.gov/media/videos/wellinghoff/2010/05-12-10-wellinghoff-transcript.pdf

Conventional View

V2G Concept

Links to articles at URL below

Articles and Papers on GIV and EVs
This section has articles and reports by the University of Delaware GIV group and our industrial partners, on integrating EVs with the grid, and also on EV design, use, and policy. They are divided into peer-reviewed articles, reports, and conference presentations.

Peer-reviewed Articles
Published articles have gone through peer-review to insure quality, and are available via their DOI, and in research libraries worldwide. Some articles are available on-line only with subscription; these will also have a draft or page proof version here that can be accessed. Articles are listed below by topic area.

GIVs and Power Markets

Tomić, Jasna and Willett Kempton, 2007, "Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support" Journal of Power Sources, 168 (20), p459-468. Published doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.03.010., may require payment. Proof with minor errors. Examines two actual electric vehicle fleets, their operating cycles, and the value of revenue from these vehicles if they were equipped for V2G power (the fleets examined were electric but not equipped for V2G). This is a realistic analysis of real fleets in use today, and gives the revenue potential in the electric markets in which they operate.

Letendre. Steven, Paul Denholm, and Peter Lilienthal, 2006."Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: New Load or New Resource?”, Public Utilities Fortnightly, December 2006., p28-37. (This article is co-authored by employees of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright.) PDF of published article. Review of V2G principles and new analysis of how it affects the load curve of electric utilities, also brief analysis of how plug power capacity affects V2G revenue. Clear and readable. Sidebar interview with CEO of Tesla Motors. The subtitle, inserted by the editors of this utility industry journal, is "The industry must join a growing chorus in calling for new technology."”

Kempton, Willett and Jasna Tomić. 2005. "Vehicle to Grid Power Implementation: from stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy". Journal of Power Sources, Volume 144, Issue 1, 1 June 2005, p280-294. Published doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2004.12.022, may require payment. Final proof. Overall size of V2G in comparison to electric generation and load, control strategies and business models for implementation, analysis of V2G as storage for large-scale renewable electricity. Appendix gives practical considerations and capacity of power connections.

Kempton, Willett and Jasna Tomić. 2005. "Vehicle to Grid Fundamentals: Calculating Capacity and Net Revenue", Journal of Power Sources, Volume 144, Issue 1, 1 June 2005, Pages 268-279. Published doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2004.12.025, may require payment. Final proof. This is our best exposition of the fundamentals of both the vehicle fleet and electric markets. The basic 17 equations of V2G are derived. Correction to published version: Page 275, Table 3, line 3: should be "27.4 kWh" not "27.4 $/kWh".

Letendre, Steven and Willett Kempton, 2002. "The V2G Concept: A New Model for Power?”, Public Utilities Fortnightly 140(4): 16-26, February 2002, may require payment. Proof. Also available in our Japanese translation. This article is our best short summary (8 pages) of the V2G concept, incorporating findings from our CARB-LADWP report (below) that show the value of ancillary services to be far higher than that of peak power. This article is written for an electric-utility audience and thus provides less explanation of power types and markets than our articles written for a transportation audience.

Kempton, Willett and Toru Kubo. 2000. "Electric-drive Vehicles for Peak Power in Japan”, Energy Policy 28(1): 9-18. Published doi:10.1016/SO301-4215(99)00078-6, may require payment. Final proof. Also available in our Japanese translation. The Kempton-Kubo analysis is for Tokyo, based on existing power rates and Japanese driving patterns.

Kempton, Willett and Steven Letendre, 1997. "Electric Vehicles as a New Source of Power for Electric Utilities”, Transportation Research 2(3): 157-175. Published doi:10.1016/S1361-9209(97)00001-1, may require payment. Proof. This is the first description of the key concepts of V2G: That the potential resource exceeds all current electric generation by many times, that the value is not in bulk power but in responding when needed, and that the driver sets limits based on driving need within which the grid operator dispatches based on time of electric system need. This first article is before we called the idea "V2G" and the analysis is based primarily on peak power, which subsequent work (above) shows to be a lower-value market for V2G power.

GIVs for Wind Integration

Budischak, Cory, DeAnna Sewell, Heather Thomson, Leon Mach, Dana E. Veron, and Willett Kempton, 2012, Cost-minimized combination of wind power, solar power, and electrochemical storage, providing the grid up to 99.9% of the time, Journal of Power Sources, 225(2013), 60-74. Published doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.954, open access. A one-page follow-up corrects two errors in the published article, doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.01.046. Our PDF, contains the correction page. Comparison of GIV with other storage mediums for large-scale integration of renewable generation. GIV is the least expensive storage tested. At very high renewables penetration, all vehicles would be used.

Kempton, Willett and Amardeep Dhanju, 2006, "Electric Vehicles with V2G: Storage for Large-Scale Wind Power". Windtech International 2 (2), pp 18-21, March 2006. A brief technical introduction to V2G as storage for wind power. Analyzes the duration of low-wind events as a measure of storage needs, and compares national-level potential V2G power with average load in 11 countries. This article appeared in the March 2006 issue of Windtech International and is displayed with permission. Copyright 2006 by Siteur Publications.

EV Use, Policy and Market

Pearre, Nathaniel S., et al. Electric vehicles: How much range is required for a day's driving? Transport.Res.Part C (2011), doi:10.1016/j.trc.2010.12.010, may require payment. Proof, may contain typos. Driving data from 400 gasoline vehicles over a year, used to determine the distribution of daily range needed.

Hidrue, Michael K., et al., Willingness to pay for electric vehicles and their attributes. Resource Energy Econ. (2011), doi: 10.1016/j.reseneeco.2011.02.002, may require payment. Proof, may contain typos. National survey of car buyers used to determine willingness to pay for EVs, as well as individual attributes such as longer rages, faster charging, faster acceleration, and lower pollution.

EV and GIV Technology

Kempton, Willett, Francesco Marra, Peter Bach Anderson and Rodrigo Garcia-Valle, 2013 “Business Models and Control and Management Architectures for EV Electrical Grid integration,” accepted, IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe. Pre-publication version. Chapter 4 of Electric Vehicle Integration Into Modern Power Networks edited by Rodrigo Garcia-Valle and Joao A. Pecas Lopes (published by Springer Science + Business Media), pp. 87-105. Copyright 2013, IEEE. Doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0134-6_4. Functional comparison of liquid fuels versus electricity, comparison of functions and standards for charging stations, and review of three projects that integrate EVs into the electric grid.


Kempton, Willett, Victor Udo, Ken Huber, Kevin Komara, Steven Letendre, Scott Baker, Doug Brunner, & Nathaniel Pearre, 2008, “A Test of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) for Energy Storage and Frequency Regulation in the PJM System”. This report documents a practical demonstration of a Grid Integrated Vehicle providing real-time frequency regulation from a single electric car. At the University of Delaware, on October 18, 2007, a team of engineers and officials from UD, Pepco Holdings Inc (PHI), and PJM Interconnection successfully interconnected an AC Propulsion “eBox” to the PJM grid using a direct AGC signal from the PJM control center. The vehicle was dispatched in real time as a regulation resource, like traditional generators. This report covers the engineering, market and experimental results of this proof of concept demonstration and study. (UD's later developments use an "aggregator" to communicate with PJM, rather than PJM communicating to individual cars, that is not covered in this earlier report.)

Udo, Victor, 2008, "Proven at PJM:Vehicle to Grid (V2G) and Power System/Transportation Synergies,", Energy Pulse, November 17, 2008. This report explains the overall approach of using electric vehicles to support the power system. Also, reports on the first successful dispatch of an electric vehicle from a real-time ISO signal, with a photo of the event.

Gage, Thomas B., 2003. "Final Report Development and Evaluation of a Plug-in HEV with Vehicle-to-Grid Power Flow”, Report, AC Propulsion, December 2003. This report describes a tri-fuel vehicle which was designed, built, and tested, under CARB Grant Number ICAT 01-2. The prototype vehicle is refueled and run on electricity or natural gas, or gasoline, using a series hybrid. From the abstract: The project vehicle provides 35 miles of battery-only range with highway performance capability so operation on grid electricity can eliminate operating emissions and one or more cold engine starts per day. The project vehicle can re-charge its traction battery from the grid in less than one hour. The hybrid power unit in the project vehicle can sustain battery charge at highway speeds providing long distance travel unconstrained by battery range. The hybrid power unit in the project vehicle can also generate electricity while the vehicle is parked. In this stationary mode, the hybrid power unit can operate on gasoline stored on the vehicle or on low-pressure natural gas piped to the vehicle from the gas main. While parked, the power generated can be exported as alternating current electricity either to the grid or to stand-alone loads. Interactions between the vehicle and the grid, including power export, can be controlled from remote locations via wireless internet connection. These capabilities are demonstrated in stationary testing and 6000 miles of on-road use.

Brooks, Alec, 2002. "Vehicle-to-Grid Demonstration Project: Grid Regulation Ancillary Service with a Battery Electric Vehicle”, Report, AC Propulsion, December 2002. Sponsored by CARB. In addition to the test results, this report has a thorough analysis of regulation services and how V2G can provide them. From the abstract: A test vehicle was fitted with a bidirectional grid power interface and wireless internet connectivity, allowing power flow to or from the vehicle to be dispatched remotely. Power dispatch commands were sent wirelessly to the vehicle at 4-second intervals, and the vehicle response was monitored and recorded. Results showed that wireless data transmission times were within ISO system requirements, and that the energy throughput through the battery due to regulation is similar to that of typical daily driving. The value created by the service exceeds the battery wear out costs under most operating assumptions.

Kempton, Willett, Jasna Tomić, Steven Letendre, Alex Brooks & Timothy Lipman. 2001. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California. UCD-ITS-RR-01-03. For an executive summary, click on HTML or PDF, or click on the title above for the full report. This CARB/LADWP-sponsored report is specific to California, yet it has comprehensive analysis on V2G, some not in subsequent publications. This was the first full coverage of all three vehicle types--battery, fuel cell and hybrid vehicles, across four power markets--baseload, peak, spinning reserves, and regulation services. The approach and formulae developed and explained here are the basis for our subsequent analysis. (Although our equation notation was rationalized and standardized in our 2005 and later publications. Very brief summary of economic results: Battery vehicles (also called "electric vehicles" or EVs) with telematics and power electronics designed to allow V2G could earn $2,000 - $3,000 per year by selling a form of power called "regulation services." Fuel cell and hybrid vehicles could earn $1,500 - $2,500 per year by selling electricity as "spinning reserves." We found that V2G is economically valuable in the CalISO market for these forms of electric power that go on briefly when needed. Vehicles do not appear to be economically competitive for "baseload power," that is, constant power generation, which has lower blue per kWh and more drain on the battery, hydrogen, or fuel tank.

Conference Presentations and Unrefereed Papers

Presentations from The Seattle Electric Vehicle to Grid Forum (PDFs), also Press release.

The two papers below are from a symposium organized by Alec Brooks, "Vehicle to Grid: A new Vision for Electric Transportation," at the EVAA Electric Transportation Industry Conference (Sacramento, Dec. 2001).

David Hawkins, from the California Independent System Operator, discusses V2G as a resource for grid regulation in California. He explains what the ISO does, and compares V2G with traditional sources of regulation--generators running at partial speed. He also describes the characteristics of wind generation, of which 2-3 GW is planned to be added in California, and why V2G is an ideal complement for it. Click to see the slides in PDF: David Hawkins, 2001, "Vehicle to Grid--A Control Area Operators Perspective"

These slides give an overview of V2G for regulation, then give specifications for already built by AC Propulsion that are capable of doing real-time grid regulation. It also describes two V2G demonstration projects they are carrying out, the "EV Grid Regulation Demonstration Project" and the "Grid Connected Hybrid Vehicle Project." Click for PDF of slides: Alec Brooks, 2001, "Electric Drive Vehicles: A Huge New Distributed Energy Resource"


Kempton's V2G Website: http://www.udel.edu/V2G/index.html

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Response to kristopher (Original post)

Wed Jul 31, 2013, 06:32 PM

1. The Cash-Back Car: Monetizing Electric Vehicles

The Cash-Back Car: Monetizing Electric Vehicles


But what if you could earn $1,000 a year with your electric vehicle, netting $440 after your fill-up costs? Would that be enough of an incentive to compensate for higher upfront costs and range anxiety?


The grid needs short-, medium-, and longer-term storage to run smoothly, and car batteries could most easily meet the short-term need, a process called frequency regulation. And as we ramp up our percentage of renewable energy from variable sources like wind and solar, the need for this service is growing. But why would car owners allow their cars to be used in this way? Enter the cash-back car.


The service they provide is actually higher quality frequency regulation than the way grid operators have provided that service traditionally: by ramping extra “peaker” power plants up and down, which wastes electricity. It also takes the plants several minutes to ramp up or down. By contrast, batteries in the cars can deliver that service within seconds, making it a more valuable tool. “We’re providing a more valuable and responsive service,” said Kempton.

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Chairman Jon Wellinghoff agrees and believes that value should be compensated with higher payments than the peaker plants receive. He proposed a rule to that effect in February and expects it to become official within months.

The rule would apply anywhere that RTOs or independent system operators (ISOs) have a tariff for regulation services — nearly the entire country, except for the Southwest Power Pool service area: Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska and parts of Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana....

More at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/ericagies/2011/06/22/the-cash-back-car-monetizing-electric-vehicles/

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Response to kristopher (Original post)

Wed Jul 31, 2013, 07:01 PM

2. Legal and Regulatory impediments to Vehicle-to-Grid Aggregation


This article begins by defining the “vehicle-to-grid” concept for a legal readership, and places it in context by discussing some major prob- lems facing the United States electrical grid. The are several ways in which the vehicle-to-grid concept may potentially mitigate the grid’s prob- lems as are described. Then, the article discusses the major legal and regu- latory impediments to implementing a vehicle-to-grid program. Several of the hurdles are simply manifestations of uncertainties in the business environment. Others are more properly legal and regulatory impediments, but are expected to be surmountable. Therefore, the Article concludes that legal and regulatory impediments will not likely hinder the adoption of vehicle-to-grid programs.


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Response to kristopher (Original post)

Wed Jul 31, 2013, 07:33 PM

3. Grid Energy Storage Primer: Different Types of Storage Serve Different Needs

The Challenge of Storing Energy on a Large Scale
Published: September 29, 2010


Grid operators must keep power flowing reliably to users, a task known as frequency regulation that has been complicated by the addition of unpredictable generating resources like solar and wind power. Those sources can change output rapidly if external conditions shift: a cloud crossing the sun or a drop in the wind.

Aside from these minute-to-minute changes in output, solar and wind also have larger production discrepancies: the sun does not shine at night, and in many places, wind is calm during the day. Energy experts call this “intermittency.”


The most common technology already in use for grid storage is pumped storage hydroelectricity, in which managers use electricity to pump water up into higher elevation reservoirs at night, then release it at times of peak demand to recapture the energy. This technique proliferated in the United States during the heyday of nuclear plant construction in the 1960s and 1970s to absorb unused nighttime energy from reactors that produce a constant flow of power around the clock.

In 2009, the United States had 21.5 gigawatts of pumped storage generating capacity, according to the Energy Information Agency. Wider deployment, however, is limited by geography and environmental concerns similar to those associated with dams. The E.I.A. projects no change in capacity through 2030.


The New York Independent System Operator has defined short-term energy storage devices like flywheels and batteries as frequency regulators, allowing them to participate in regulated markets. Independent system operators in Texas, California, and the Midwest, Mr. Makansi said, “have been progressively laying in policy, procedures, pricing, and other mechanisms that support deployment of storage services.”



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Response to kristopher (Original post)

Thu Aug 1, 2013, 04:02 AM

4. And what better way for Kristopher to celebrate getting an argumentative opponent banned from E/E ..


... than to re-post (again) screeds from 2 or 3 years ago that supported his pet project V2G?

Have a happy day K!

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Response to Nihil (Reply #4)

Thu Aug 1, 2013, 04:38 AM

5. It takes an odd perspective to describe mainline academic work as "screeds"

V2G isn't a project of mine, pet or otherwise. Building a carbon free grid is a project I'm happy to be part of, but that entails knowledge on a wide range of technologies - among them V2G.

The thread - to which I intend adding more material - was prompted by a thread where a significant lack of understanding in how the grid works and the differing roles various forms of storage can play in making a distributed renewable grid a reality.

Sorry it disturbs you. Suggest you put me on ignore.

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Response to kristopher (Reply #5)

Thu Aug 1, 2013, 06:29 AM

6. Not really, it just takes the boredom of having seen them several times before.


> Sorry it disturbs you.

Doesn't disturb me at all.

> Suggest you put me on ignore.

Ah the old "stop disagreeing with me and let me blather on undisputed" ploy.

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Response to Nihil (Reply #6)

Thu Aug 1, 2013, 06:37 AM

7. If you'd seen them several times before

Then you would recognize that there are a number of people on this forum who have no idea what it is or what the positioning is of V2G within the grid.

IF, and I repeat IF you had the goal of sharing important information that can facilitate public support of a transition away from carbon as promptly as possible, it would be absolutely fantastical for you to express such displeasure of this information being posted because YOU have seen it before.

It would be especially strange considering that I have, in fact, posted very very little of the above information in the past.

ETA: I forgot to mention - I have no problem with someone disagreeing with me and presenting a valid argument for their position. But where, in your initial post, did you disagree with me? All I saw was someone who has a longstanding grudge because I am against nuclear power who was acting like a smart-ALEC.

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