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Wed Jun 12, 2019, 05:23 AM

56 Years Ago Today; Medgar Evers assassinated in Jackson, MS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medgar_Evers



Medgar Wiley Evers (July 2, 1925 – June 12, 1963) was an American civil rights activist in Mississippi, the state's field secretary for the NAACP, and a World War II veteran who had served in the United States Army. He worked to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi, end the segregation of public facilities, and expand opportunities for African Americans, which included the enforcement of voting rights.

A college graduate, Evers became active in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s. Following the 1954 ruling of the United States Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education that segregated public schools were unconstitutional, Evers challenged the segregation of the state-supported public University of Mississippi, applying to law school there. He also worked for voting rights, economic opportunity, access to public facilities, and other changes in the segregated society. Evers was awarded the 1963 NAACP Spingarn Medal.

Evers was assassinated in 1963 by Byron De La Beckwith, a member of the White Citizens' Council. This group was formed in 1954 in Mississippi to resist the integration of schools and civil rights activism. As a veteran, Evers was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. His murder and the resulting trials inspired civil rights protests; his life and these events inspired numerous works of art, music, and film. All-white juries failed to reach verdicts in the first two trials of Beckwith in the 1960s. He was convicted in 1994 in a new state trial based on new evidence.

Medgar's widow, Myrlie Evers, became a noted activist in her own right, serving as national chair of the NAACP. His brother Charles Evers was the first African American to be elected as mayor of a city in Mississippi in the post-Reconstruction era; he won the office in 1969 in Fayette.

Early life
Evers was born on July 2, 1925, in Decatur, Mississippi, the third of five children (including elder brother Charles Evers) of Jesse (Wright) and James Evers. The family included Jesse's two children from a previous marriage. The Evers family owned a small farm and James also worked at a sawmill. Evers and his siblings walked 12 miles to attend segregated schools; eventually Medgar earned his high school diploma.

Evers served in the United States Army during World War II from 1943 to 1945. He was sent to the European Theater where he fought in the Battle of Normandy in June 1944. After the end of the war, Evers was honorably discharged as a sergeant.

In 1948, Evers enrolled at Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College (a historically black college, now Alcorn State University), majoring in business administration. He also competed on the debate, football, and track teams, sang in the choir, and was junior class president. He earned his Bachelor of Arts in 1952.

On December 24, 1951, he married classmate Myrlie Beasley. Together they had three children: Darrell Kenyatta, Reena Denise, and James Van Dyke Evers.

Activism
The couple moved to Mound Bayou, Mississippi, a town developed by African Americans, where Evers became a salesman for T. R. M. Howard's Magnolia Mutual Life Insurance Company. Evers was also president of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership (RCNL), which began to organize actions for civil rights; Evers helped organize the RCNL's boycott of gasoline stations that denied blacks the use of the stations' restrooms. Evers and his brother Charles attended the RCNL's annual conferences in Mound Bayou between 1952 and 1954, which drew crowds of 10,000 or more.

In 1954, following the U.S. Supreme Court decision that segregated public schools were unconstitutional, Evers applied to the state-supported University of Mississippi Law School, but his application was rejected because of his race. He submitted his application as part of a test case by the NAACP.

On November 24, 1954, Evers was named as the NAACP's first field secretary for Mississippi. In this position, he helped organize boycotts and set up new local chapters of the NAACP. He was involved with James Meredith's efforts to enroll in the University of Mississippi in the early 1960s.

Evers also encouraged Dr. Gilbert Mason Sr. in his organizing of the Biloxi wade-ins from 1959 to 1963, protests against segregation of the city's public beaches on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Evers conducted actions to help integrate Jackson's privately owned buses and tried to integrate the public parks. He led voter registration drives, and used boycotts to integrate Leake County schools and the Mississippi State Fair.

Evers's civil rights leadership, along with his investigative work, made him a target of white supremacists. Following the Brown v. Board of Education decision, local whites founded the White Citizens' Council in Mississippi, and numerous local chapters were started, to resist the integration of schools and facilities. In the weeks before Evers was killed, he encountered new levels of hostility. His public investigations into the 1955 lynching of Chicago teenager Emmett Till in Mississippi, and his vocal support of Clyde Kennard, had made him a prominent black leader. On May 28, 1963, a Molotov cocktail was thrown into the carport of his home. On June 7, 1963, Evers was nearly run down by a car after he came out of the NAACP office in Jackson, Mississippi.

Assassination

Rifle used by De La Beckwith to murder Evers

Medgar Evers lived with the constant threat of death. A large white supremacist population and the Ku Klux Klan were present in Jackson and its suburbs. The risk was so high that before his death, Evers and his wife Myrlie had trained their children on what to do in case of a shooting, bombing or other kind of attack on their lives. Evers, who was regularly followed home by at least two FBI cars and one police car, arrived at his home on the morning of his death without an escort. None of his usual protection was present, for reasons unspecified by the FBI or local police. There has been speculation that many members of the police force at the time were members of the Klan.

In the early morning of June 12, 1963, just hours after President John F. Kennedy's nationally televised Civil Rights Address, Evers pulled into his driveway after returning from a meeting with NAACP lawyers. Evers's family had worried for his safety that day, and Evers himself had warned his wife that he felt in greater danger than usual. When he arrived home, Evers' family was waiting for him and his children exclaimed to his wife, Myrlie, that he had arrived. Emerging from his car and carrying NAACP T-shirts that read "Jim Crow Must Go", Evers was struck in the back with a bullet fired from an Enfield 1917 rifle; the bullet passed through his heart. Initially thrown to the ground by the impact of the shot, Evers rose and staggered 30 feet (10 meters) before collapsing outside his front door. His wife Myrlie was the first to find him. He was taken to the local hospital in Jackson, where he was initially refused entry because of his race. His family explained who he was and he was admitted; he died in the hospital 50 minutes later. Evers was the first African American to be admitted to an all-white hospital in Mississippi, a questionable achievement for the dying activist. Mourned nationally, Evers was buried on June 19 in Arlington National Cemetery, where he received full military honors before a crowd of more than 3,000.

After Evers was assassinated, an estimated 5,000 people marched from the Masonic Temple on Lynch Street to the Collins Funeral Home on North Farish Street in Jackson. Allen Johnson, Reverend Martin Luther King and other civil rights leaders led the procession. The Mississippi police came prepared with riot gear and rifles in case the protests turned violent. While tensions were initially high in the stand-off between police and marchers, both in Jackson and in many similar marches around the state, leaders of the movement maintained nonviolence among their followers.


The Evers' house at 2332 Margaret Walker Alexander Drive, where Medgar Evers was fatally shot after getting out of his car

Trials
On June 21, 1963, Byron De La Beckwith, a fertilizer salesman and member of the White Citizens' Council (and later of the Ku Klux Klan), was arrested for Evers' murder. District Attorney and future governor Bill Waller prosecuted De La Beckwith. All-white juries in February and April 1964 deadlocked on De La Beckwith's guilt and failed to reach a verdict. At the time, most blacks were still disenfranchised by Mississippi's constitution and voter registration practices; this meant they were also excluded from juries, which were drawn from the pool of registered voters.

Myrlie Evers never gave up the fight for a conviction of her husband's murderer. She waited until a new judge had been assigned in the county to take her case against de la Beckwith back into the courtroom. In 1994, De La Beckwith was prosecuted by the state based on new evidence. Bobby DeLaughter was the prosecutor. During the trial, the body of Evers was exhumed for an autopsy. De La Beckwith was convicted of murder on February 5, 1994, after having lived as a free man for much of the three decades following the killing. (He had been imprisoned from 1977 to 1980 on separate charges: conspiring to murder A.I. Botnick.) In 1997, De La Beckwith appealed his conviction in the Evers case, but the Mississippi Supreme Court upheld it. He died at age 80 in prison on January 21, 2001.

Legacy

Medgar Evers's grave in Arlington National Cemetery in 2007

Evers was memorialized by leading Mississippi and national authors both black and white: James Baldwin, Margaret Walker, Eudora Welty, and Anne Moody. In 1963, Evers was posthumously awarded the Spingarn Medal by the NAACP. In 1969, Medgar Evers College was established in Brooklyn, New York as part of the City University of New York.

Evers's widow Myrlie Evers co-wrote the book For Us, the Living with William Peters in 1967. In 1983, a television movie was made based on the book. Celebrating Evers's life and career, it starred Howard Rollins Jr. and Irene Cara as Medgar and Myrlie Evers, airing on PBS. The film won the Writers Guild of America award for Best Adapted Drama.

In 1969, a community pool in the Central District neighborhood of Seattle, Washington was named after Evers, honoring his life.

On June 28, 1992, the city of Jackson, Mississippi erected a statue in honor of Evers. All of Delta Drive (part of U.S. Highway 49) in Jackson was renamed in Evers's honor. In December 2004, the Jackson City Council changed the name of the city's airport to "Jackson-Medgar Wiley Evers International Airport" (Jackson-Evers International Airport) in his honor.


Statue of Evers at the Medgar Evers Boulevard Library in Jackson, Mississippi

His widow Myrlie Evers became a noted activist in her own right, eventually serving as national chairperson of the NAACP. Medgar's brother Charles Evers returned to Jackson in July 1963, and served briefly with the NAACP in his slain brother's place. He remained involved in Mississippi civil rights activities for many years, and in 1969, was the first African-American mayor elected in the state. He now resides in Jackson.

On the 40th anniversary of Evers's assassination, hundreds of civil rights veterans, government officials, and students from across the country gathered around his grave site at Arlington National Cemetery to celebrate his life and legacy. Barry Bradford and three students—Sharmistha Dev, Jajah Wu, and Debra Siegel, formerly of Adlai E. Stevenson High School in Lincolnshire, Illinois—planned and hosted the commemoration in his honor. Evers was the subject of the students' research project.

In October 2009, Navy Secretary Ray Mabus, a former Mississippi governor, announced that USNS Medgar Evers (T-AKE-13), a Lewis and Clark-class dry cargo ship, would be named in the activist's honor. The ship was christened by Myrlie Evers-Williams on November 12, 2011.

In June 2013, a statue of Evers was erected at his alma mater, Alcorn State University, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of his death. Alumni and guests from around the world gathered to recognize his contributions to American society.

Evers was honored in a tribute at Arlington National Cemetery on the 50th anniversary of his death. Former President Bill Clinton, Attorney General Eric Holder, Navy Secretary Ray Mabus, Senator Roger Wicker, and NAACP President Benjamin Jealous all spoke commemorating Evers. Evers's widow, Myrlie Evers-Williams, spoke of his contributions to the advancement of civil rights:

Medgar was a man who never wanted adoration, who never wanted to be in the limelight. He was a man who saw a job that needed to be done and he answered the call and the fight for freedom, dignity and justice not just for his people but all people.

He was identified as a Freedom hero by The My Hero Project.

In 2017, the Medgar and Myrlie Evers House was named as a National Historic Landmark. Two years later, in 2019, the site was designated a National Monument.

</snip>


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Reply 56 Years Ago Today; Medgar Evers assassinated in Jackson, MS (Original post)
Dennis Donovan Jun 12 OP
Bernardo de La Paz Jun 12 #1
melm00se Jun 12 #7
Hortensis Jun 12 #2
Bernardo de La Paz Jun 12 #3
Auggie Jun 12 #4
The Blue Flower Jun 12 #5
MaryMagdaline Jun 12 #6
lunasun Jun 12 #8
struggle4progress Jun 12 #9
DashOneBravo Jun 12 #10

Response to Dennis Donovan (Original post)

Wed Jun 12, 2019, 06:56 AM

1. Refused admission to hospital with a bullet through his heart? What kind of state was Mississippi?


Sounds like Satan's state.

Jesus told them to deny him? Were they self-styled christians who denied him entry?

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Response to Bernardo de La Paz (Reply #1)

Wed Jun 12, 2019, 09:00 AM

7. Hospitals

at the time were not required to treat/stabilize patients with life threatening conditions. This did not get codified into law until Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA), 42 U.S.C. § 1395 was passed in 1985.

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Response to Dennis Donovan (Original post)

Wed Jun 12, 2019, 07:23 AM

2. Awesome person and life far more than just worth living.

I don't know how they did it, but our entire nation has benefited. I don't see that Myrlie Evers is scheduled for any events today, but earlier this year their home from those years long ago was made a national monument, the only one in MS related to the civil rights movement.

Ironically, Trump signed this into law, and the legislation was backed by MS Senator “If he invited me to a public hanging, I’d be on the front row” Cindy Hyde-Smith. It brings national taxpayer money to maintain it, but as an alternative to sending a bulldozer to try to bury his legacy this monument of course also marks advance. Someday it'll likely be in her obituary as one of her most notable achievements.

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Response to Dennis Donovan (Original post)

Wed Jun 12, 2019, 07:37 AM

3. Noteworthy that Police AND FBI were unusually absent the morning he was assassinated. . . . nt

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Response to Dennis Donovan (Original post)

Wed Jun 12, 2019, 07:59 AM

4. "Medgar Evers: Mississippi Martyr" -- Michael Vinson Williams

Described as being perhaps the definitive book on Evers' work in Mississippi, it also covers life events that helped guide his path towards activism, and describes in detail the seemingly insurmountable challenges he faced in one of the most oppressive states in the USA.

A well-researched, important look into American history -- a "must-read" in my opinion. I just finished it.

Find it on Amazon.

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Response to Dennis Donovan (Original post)

Wed Jun 12, 2019, 07:59 AM

5. Thank you for the reminder

May he live in memory for all Americans.

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Response to Dennis Donovan (Original post)

Wed Jun 12, 2019, 08:52 AM

6. Peace to his family

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Response to Dennis Donovan (Original post)

Wed Jun 12, 2019, 12:20 PM

8. He was taken to the local hospital in Jackson, where he was initially refused entry

He was taken to the local hospital in Jackson, where he was initially refused entry because of his race.
His family explained who he was and he was admitted; he died in the hospital 50 minutes later. Evers was the first African American to be admitted to an all-white hospital in Mississippi, a questionable achievement for the dying activist

Have to wonder if they even tried to save him or how many involved at the hospital would not cooperate with life saving procedures

A different civil rights infringement currrently in the works is a slippery slope and it’s federal not just the south
Certainly not as sweeping or the same acceptance (yet) but check out the law going into effect in July that trump signed about right to refuse medical care and what’s coming next

The administration has already created new exemptions for the Affordable Care Act’s requirement that employer health plans cover contraceptive care, though that change has been delayed in court.

Another rule, still in its proposed stage, would modify civil rights requirements that bar discrimination by hospitals and insurance companies against transgender patients and women with a history of abortion. (Sanger-Katz, 5/2)

Once they go after transgender rights it’s a free fall and could return our whole country back to hospital refusal to many based on prejudices
All bad
Killed at 37 yrs old Survived fighting at the Battle of Normandy WWII but not the racial hatred in his own country

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Response to Dennis Donovan (Original post)

Wed Jun 12, 2019, 01:37 PM

10. Rest In Peace Sir

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