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Mon Sep 10, 2018, 12:30 PM

another 9/11--1973 Chilean coup d'tat (and death of democratically elected Salvador Allende)

1973 Chilean coup d'état
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1973 Chilean coup d'état
Part of the history of Chile, Operation Condor, and the Cold War
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_Chilean_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat
The bombing of La Moneda on 11 September 1973 by the Junta's Armed Forces
Date 11 September 1973
Location Chile
Action Armed forces put the country under military control. Little and unorganised civil resistance.
Result

Popular Unity government overthrown
Death of Salvador Allende (suicide)
Military Junta Government led by General Augusto Pinochet assumed power

Belligerents
Chile Chilean Government
Flag of the MIR - Chile.svg Revolutionary Left Movement
"Group of Personal Friends"
Other working-class militants[1]


Chile Chilean Armed Forces

Chilean Army
Chilean Navy
Chilean Air Force
Carabineros de Chile

Supported by:
Soviet Union Soviet Union
Cuba Cuba Supported by:
United States United States[2][3]
Commanders and leaders
Chile Salvador Allende †
Chile Max Marambio
Flag of the MIR - Chile.svg Miguel Enríquez Chile Augusto Pinochet
Chile José Toribio Merino
Chile Gustavo Leigh
Chile César Mendoza
Casualties and losses
46 GAP
60 in total during the coup
Operation Condor
Background histories

Argentina Bolivia Brazil (1960s) Chile (1973 coup d'état) Paraguay Peru Uruguay

Events

Dirty War National Reorganization Process Operation Colombo Operation Charly Operation Gladio Night of the Pencils Operation Independence Ezeiza massacre Margarita Belén massacre Death flights Desaparecidos (the "disappeared" 1973 Chilean coup d'état

Government leaders

Jorge Anaya Hugo Banzer Basilio Lami Dozo João Figueiredo Leopoldo Galtieri Augusto Pinochet Alfredo Stroessner Jorge Rafael Videla

Targeted militias

MontonerosTupamaros
People's Revolutionary Army (ERP)
Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR)

Principal operatives

Alfredo Astiz Orlando Bosch Hugo Campos Hermida Manuel Contreras Stefano Delle Chiaie José López Rega Virgilio Paz Romero Luis Posada Carriles Paul Schäfer Michael Townley

Organizations responsible

Dirección de Inteligencia
Nacional (DINA)
Caravan of Death
Batallón de Inteligencia 601
Coordination of United Revolutionary
Organizations (CORU)
National Intelligence
Service of Brazil (SNI)
School of the Americas (SOA)
Servizio per le Informazioni e
la Sicurezza Militare (SISMI)
Argentine Anticommunist
Alliance ("Triple A"
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Places

Esmeralda Estadio Nacional de Chile Villa Grimaldi Colonia Dignidad
Navy Petty-Officers School
of Mechanics (ESMA)

Laws

Full stop Due Obedience

Archives and reports

Archives of Terror Rettig Report Valech Report National Security Archive

Reactions

National Commission on the
Disappearance of Persons (CONADEP)
Trial of the Juntas
Augusto Pinochet's arrest and trial
Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo

vte

Covert United States involvement in regime change
1949 Syrian coup d'état
1949–1953 Albania
1951–56 Tibet
1953 Iranian coup d'état
1954 Guatemalan coup d'état
1956–57 Syria crisis
1957–58 Indonesian rebellion
1959–2000 Cuba, assassination attempts on Fidel Castro
1959 Cambodian "Bangkok Plot"
1960 Congo coup
1961 Cuba, Bay of Pigs Invasion
1961 Cuba, Operation Mongoose
1961 Dominican Republic
1963 South Vietnamese coup
1964 Bolivian coup d'état
1964 Brazilian coup d'état
1966 Ghana coup d'état
1970 Cambodian coup
1971 Bolivian coup d'état
1970–73 Chile
1979–89 Afghanistan, Operation Cyclone
1980–92 Angola, UNITA
1981–87 Nicaragua, Contras
1982 Chad
1991 Haiti
1996 Iraq coup attempt
2000 Yugoslavia
2004 Haiti
2011–2017 Syria, Timber Sycamore

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The 1973 Chilean coup d'état was a watershed moment in both the history of Chile and the Cold War. Following an extended period of social unrest and political tension between the opposition-controlled Congress of Chile and the socialist President Salvador Allende, as well as economic warfare ordered by US President Richard Nixon,[4] Allende was overthrown by the armed forces and national police.[5][6]

The military deposed Allende's Popular Unity government and later established a junta that suspended all political activity in Chile and repressed left-wing movements, especially the Communist and socialist parties and the Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR). Allende's appointed army chief, Augusto Pinochet, rose to supreme power within a year of the coup, formally assuming power in late-1974.[7] The United States government, which had worked to create the conditions for the coup,[8][9][10] promptly recognized the junta government and supported it in consolidating power.[11]

During the air raids and ground attacks that preceded the coup, Allende gave his final speech, in which he vowed to stay in the presidential palace, refusing offers of safe passage should he choose exile over confrontation.[12] Direct witness accounts of Allende's death agree that he killed himself in the palace.[13][14]

Before the coup, Chile had been hailed as a beacon of democracy and political stability for decades; whilst the rest of South America had been plagued by military juntas and Caudillismo. The collapse of Chilean democracy ended a streak of democratic governments in Chile, which had held democratic elections since 1932.[15] Historian Peter Winn characterised the 1973 coup as one of the most violent events in the history of Chile.[16] A weak insurgent movement against the Pinochet regime was maintained inside Chile by elements sympathetic to the former Allende government. An internationally supported plebiscite in 1988 held under the auspices of the military government was followed by a peaceful transition to an elected civilian government.

. . .

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_Chilean_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat

The Allende Years and the Pinochet Coup, 1969–1973
. . . . .

These issues led to a series of demonstrations and strikes from 1971 to 1973. On June 29, 1973, in the midst of widespread protests and strikes, Lieutenant Colonel Roberto Souper led a failed coup attempt against Allende. In a radio address Allende called for the people to support his administration and help defeat the unlawful coup, and called in General Carlos Prats to deal with the rebel forces. Prats, like Schneider, believed that the military should remain apolitical, and the coup was aborted by late morning. Although Prats was key in stopping the coup, by August he lost the support of much of the army. Prats was succeeded as Defense Minister and Army Commander by General Augusto Pinochet on August 24, 1973. Between June and September 1973, more protests and strikes crippled Chile. On August 22, the Chamber of Deputies charged the Allende government with breaching numerous sections of the Constitution. Allende refuted the allegations, stating that his actions were constitutional. By this time, it was clear that dissent in the military was rampant and that a coup would be successful if supported fully by the military.

On the morning of September 11, 1973, the military launched another coup against the Allende government. At 9:10 a.m., Allende made his final broadcast from the presidential palace, announcing that he would not resign the presidency and rallying his supporters with the cry, “Long live Chile! Long live the people! Long live the workers!” After the address, Allende purportedly joined in defending the palace, which was under heavy attack. Once it became clear that the military would take the palace, Allende told the defenders to surrender. Allende died during the final events of the coup: his death is now widely regarded a suicide.

On September 13, Pinochet was named President of Chile, whereupon he dismantled Congress and outlawed many Chilean leftist political parties. The takeover of the government ended a 46-year history of democratic rule in Chile. In June 1975, Pinochet announced that there would be no future elections in the country. Although the U.S. Government was initially pleased by the coup, concerns mounted about the new regime’s reported violations of human rights.

Debate continues on whether the United States provided direct support for Pinochet’s coup. The United States had a long history of engaging in covert actions in Chile; it had provided funds in support of electoral candidates, run anti-Allende propaganda campaigns, and had discussed the merits of supporting a military coup in 1970. A Senate committee was convened in 1975 to investigate U.S. covert involvement in Chile during the 1960s and 1970s. The report found that the United States had carried out covert actions in Chile during these years and had even considered a proposal for Track II, a covert action meant to organize a military coup to prevent Allende coming to power. However, it concluded that there was little evidence to link the U.S. Government to covert support of Pinochet’s coup.


. . .

https://history.state.gov/milestones/1969-1976/allende

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Reply another 9/11--1973 Chilean coup d'tat (and death of democratically elected Salvador Allende) (Original post)
niyad Sep 10 OP
niyad Sep 10 #1
struggle4progress Sep 10 #2
Guy Whitey Corngood Sep 10 #3

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Mon Sep 10, 2018, 01:41 PM

1. . . . .

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Response to niyad (Original post)

Mon Sep 10, 2018, 01:45 PM

2. knr

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Response to niyad (Original post)

Mon Sep 10, 2018, 01:45 PM

3. K&R nt

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