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HysteryDiagnosis Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sat Feb-17-07 05:15 PM
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Something of interest for some perhaps all people dealing
Edited on Sat Feb-17-07 05:23 PM by 4MoronicYears
with a challenge such as this.... please note the recent nature of these papers.... a virus can deplete the stores of selenium in an individual, and I have a hard time imagining that supplementation with key nutrients could/would interfere with HAART or other trad. interventions.


1: Arch Intern Med. 2007 Jan 22;167(2):148-54.Click here to read Links
Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation: a randomized controlled trial.

* Hurwitz BE,
* Klaus JR,
* Llabre MM,
* Gonzalez A,
* Lawrence PJ,
* Maher KJ,
* Greeson JM,
* Baum MK,
* Shor-Posner G,
* Skyler JS,
* Schneiderman N.

Behavioral Medicine Research Center, University of Miami, c/o VA Medical Center, FL 33125, USA. bhurwitz@miami.edu

BACKGROUND: Despite findings that selenium supplementation may improve immune functioning, definitive evidence of its impact on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease severity is lacking. METHODS: High selenium yeast supplementation (200 mug/d) was evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Intention-to-treat analyses assessed the effect on HIV-1 viral load and CD4 count after 9 months of treatment. Unless otherwise indicated, values are presented as mean +/- SD. RESULTS: Of the 450 HIV-1-seropositive men and women who underwent screening, 262 initiated treatment and 174 completed the 9-month follow-up assessment.

Mean adherence to study treatment was good (73.0% +/- 24.7%) with no related adverse events. The intention-to-treat analyses indicated that the mean change (Delta) in serum selenium concentration increased significantly in the selenium-treated group and not the placebo-treated group (Delta = 32.2 +/- 24.5 vs 0.5 +/- 8.8 microg/L; P<.001), and greater levels predicted decreased HIV-1 viral load (P<.02), which predicted increased CD4 count (P<.04). Findings remained significant after covarying age, sex, ethnicity, income, education, current and past cocaine and other drug use, HIV symptom classification, antiretroviral medication regimen and adherence, time since HIV diagnosis, and hepatitis C virus coinfection.

Follow-up analyses evaluating treatment effectiveness indicated that the nonresponding selenium-treated subjects whose serum selenium change was less than or equal to 26.1 microg/L displayed poor treatment adherence (56.8% +/- 29.8%), HIV-1 viral load elevation (Delta = +0.29 +/- 1.1 log(10) units), and decreased CD4 count (Delta = -25.8 +/- 147.4 cells/microL). In contrast, selenium-treated subjects whose serum selenium increase was greater than 26.1 microg/L evidenced excellent treatment adherence (86.2% +/- 13.0%), no change in HIV-1 viral load (Delta = -0.04 +/- 0.7 log(10) units), and an increase in CD4 count (Delta = +27.9 +/- 150.2 cells/microL).

CONCLUSIONS: Daily selenium supplementation can suppress the progression of HIV-1 viral burden and provide indirect improvement of CD4 count. The results support the use of selenium as a simple, inexpensive, and safe adjunct therapy in HIV spectrum disease. Trial Registration isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN22553118.

PMID: 17242315


1: Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):173-81.Click here to read Links
Glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and selenium status in HIV-positive and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults.

* Stephensen CB,
* Marquis GS,
* Douglas SD,
* Kruzich LA,
* Wilson CM.

US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. cstephen@whnrc.usda.gov

BACKGROUND: Antioxidant nutrient deficiencies may hasten the progression of HIV disease by impairing antioxidant defenses. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether HIV infection is associated with poor selenium status and low antioxidant protection by glutathione and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study of 365 HIV-positive and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults, we examined the relation of plasma selenium, whole-blood glutathione, and whole-blood GPX to HIV status, disease severity, immune activation, and oxidative damage.

RESULTS: Selenium deficiency (plasma selenium < 0.070 microg/mL) was not seen in any subjects, and plasma selenium in 244 HIV-positive subjects (0.120 +/- 0.0013 microg/mL) did not differ significantly (P = 0.071) from that in 121 HIV-negative subjects (0.125 +/- 0.0020 microg/mL) .

However, multiple regression analysis after adjustment for covariates showed a significant (P = 0.002) negative association between HIV-associated immune activation (plasma neopterin) and plasma selenium concentrations. GPX activity was highest in HIV-positive subjects taking antiretroviral therapy (median: 14.2; 25th, 75th percentiles: 11.1, 18.7 U/mL; n = 130), intermediate in HIV-positive subjects not taking antiretroviral therapy (11.8; 9.4, 15.1 U/mL; n = 114), and lowest in HIV-negative subjects (10.6; 8.6, 12.7 U/mL; n = 121; P < 0.05 for all comparisons). GPX was also positively associated with malondialdehyde, a marker of oxidative damage.

CONCLUSIONS: Subjects had adequate selenium status, although HIV-related immune activation was associated with lower plasma selenium concentrations. GPX activity appears to have been induced by the oxidative stress associated with HIV infection and use of antiretroviral therapy. Thus, young, well-nourished subjects can mount a compensatory antioxidant response to HIV infection.

PMID: 17209194

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