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*CPR IN THREE SIMPLE STEPS* Basic LIfe-Saving Skills

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Tuesday Afternoon Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sat Nov-10-07 02:44 PM
Original message
*CPR IN THREE SIMPLE STEPS* Basic LIfe-Saving Skills
1. CALL
Check the victim for unresponsiveness. If there is no response, Call 911 and return to the victim. In most locations the emergency dispatcher can assist you with CPR instructions.

2. BLOW
Tilt the head back and listen for breathing. If not breathing normally, pinch nose and cover the mouth with yours and blow until you see the chest rise. Give 2 breaths. Each breath should take 1 second.

3. PUMP

If the victim is still not breathing normally, coughing or moving, begin chest compressions. Push down on the chest 11/2 to 2 inches 30 times right between the nipples. Pump at the rate of 100/minute, faster than once per second.

*Please note the change in compressions to breath ratio. It is now 30/2 for EVERYONE!! ADULT, CHILD, INFANT....No more abdominal thrusts.*

CONTINUE WITH 2 BREATHS AND 30 PUMPS UNTIL HELP ARRIVES
NOTE: This ratio is the same for one-person & two-person CPR. In two-person CPR the person pumping the chest stops while the other gives mouth-to-mouth breathing.

http://depts.washington.edu/learncpr/quickcpr.html



Three Parts of CPR
The three basic parts of CPR are easily remembered as "ABC": A for airway, B for breathing, and C for circulation.

A is for airway. The victim's airway must be open for breathing to be restored. The airway may be blocked when a child loses consciousness or may be obstructed by food or some other foreign object. In a CPR course, participants learn how to open the airway and position the child so the airway is ready for rescue breathing. The course will include what to do to clear the airway if you believe an infant or child has choked and the airway is blocked.

B is for breathing. Rescue breathing is begun when a child isn't breathing. Someone performing rescue breathing essentially breathes for the victim by forcing air into the lungs. This procedure includes breathing into the victim's mouth at correct intervals and checking for signs of life. A CPR course will review correct techniques and procedures for rescuers to position themselves to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation to infants, children, and adults.

C is for circulation. Chest compressions can sometimes restore circulation. Two rescue breaths should be provided and followed immediately by cycles of 30 chest compressions and 2 rescue breaths. It is not necessary to check for signs of circulation to perform this technique. This procedure involves pushing on the chest to help circulate blood and maintain blood flow to major organs. A CPR course will teach you how to perform chest compressions in infants, children, and adults and how to coordinate the compressions with rescue breathing.

http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/emergenc...



Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency medical procedure for a victim of cardiac arrest or, in some circumstances, respiratory arrest.<1> CPR is performed in hospitals, or in the community by laypersons or by emergency response professionals.<2>

CPR consists of artificial blood circulation and artificial respiration<1> (i.e. chest compressions and lung ventilation).<3> CPR is generally continued, usually in the presence of advanced life support, until the patient regains a heart beat (called "return of spontaneous circulation" or "ROSC") or is declared dead.

CPR is unlikely to restart the heart, but rather its purpose is to maintain a flow of oxygenated blood to the brain and the heart, thereby delaying tissue death and extending the brief window of opportunity for a successful resuscitation without permanent brain damage. Defibrillation and advanced life support are usually needed to restart the heart.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiopulmonary_resuscitat...



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Tuesday Afternoon Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sat Nov-10-07 02:53 PM
Response to Original message
1. Thanks for the rec. More info:
What is CPR?

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a combination of rescue breathing and chest compressions delivered to victims thought to be in cardiac arrest. When cardiac arrest occurs, the heart stops pumping blood. CPR can support a small amount of blood flow to the heart and brain to buy time until normal heart function is restored.

Cardiac arrest is often caused by an abnormal heart rhythm called ventricular fibrillation (VF). When VF develops, the heart quivers and doesn't pump blood. The victim in VF cardiac arrest needs CPR and delivery of a shock to the heart, called defibrillation. Defibrillation eliminates the abnormal VF heart rhythm and allows the normal rhythm to resume. Defibrillation is not effective for all forms of cardiac arrest but it is effective to treat VF, the most common cause of sudden cardiac arrest.

http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier...
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Window Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sat Nov-10-07 03:35 PM
Response to Original message
2. Thanks for sharing.
Edited on Sat Nov-10-07 03:35 PM by Window

Always good to know.


K/R


Peace :thumbsup:
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Tuesday Afternoon Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sat Nov-10-07 04:09 PM
Response to Reply #2
3. Thanks for the K & R ...Let us hope you never need to use the info
Peace~TA
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Tuesday Afternoon Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sat Nov-10-07 11:33 PM
Response to Original message
4. Thanks for the 3rd rec. More info:

The letters in CPR stand for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, a combination of rescue breathing (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation) and chest compressions. If a child isn't breathing or circulating blood adequately, CPR can restore circulation of oxygen-rich blood to the brain. Without oxygen, permanent brain damage or death can occur in less than 8 minutes.

CPR may be necessary for children during many different emergencies, including accidents, near-drowning, suffocation, poisoning, smoke inhalation, electrocution injuries, and suspected sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Reading about CPR and learning when it's needed will give you a basic understanding of the concept and procedure, but it's strongly recommended that you learn the details of how to perform CPR by taking a course. If CPR is needed, using the correct technique will give your child the best chance of recovery.

http://www.revolutionhealth.com/conditions/first-aid-sa...
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Rosemary2205 Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sat Nov-10-07 11:41 PM
Response to Original message
5. Red Cross is teaching no chest compressions. - breathing only
chest compressions have been much less effective that originally thought and the potential for doing more harm than good by a good samaritan is great. Plus the chance of a person in acute cardiac arrest surviving without defibrillation is minimal at best. Red Cross ask that good samaritans focus their efforts on obtaining an automatic external defibrillator rather than expend energy on less effective chest compressions.
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Tuesday Afternoon Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sat Nov-10-07 11:55 PM
Response to Reply #5
6. Here is a quiz from the Red Cross


Question 1


1. The Cardiac Chain of Survival consists of a sequence of steps that are activated in response to an emergency in which a victim suffers sudden cardiac arrest. Each link in the chain is critical. Put the links in the Cardiac Chain of Survival in the correct order.


1) Early defibrillation delivers electrical current to the heart with an automated external defibrillator (AED).
2) Early advanced life support a team of professionals arrives and takes over by providing advanced care.
3) Early CPR keeps oxygenated blood flowing.
4) Early recognition and early access a bystander recognizes an emergency and calls 911 or the local emergency number.

A) 1, 3, 2, 4
B) 3, 2, 4, 1
C) 4, 3, 1, 2

more at link:
http://www.redcross.org/services/youth/izone/quizzes.ht...
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The Doctor. Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 12:05 AM
Response to Reply #5
8. It's just the opposite.
Where did you get that?!?

If there's no AED, chest compressions are more valuable than recue breathing.
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Rosemary2205 Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 12:18 AM
Response to Reply #8
9. My instructor must have been confused.
There was a whole discussion regarding this so I'm sure I remember what I was taught correctly. But if I was taught wrong then I'm glad you came by to set it straight.

Thanks.
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The Doctor. Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 12:26 AM
Response to Reply #9
10. Seriously, double check... I will too.
I've had to maintain my certification for many years, and I've seen the techniques evolve. I'm certain that chest compressions are considered more critical simply because of the reduction in toxicity. Just breathing into the victim can do almost nothing if the blood isn't carrying oxygen to, or toxins away from all the organs and cells of the body... and the only way to do that is through compressions.

I've seen all kinds of instructors (and took my turn as one too for a while), and some really just want to get in and out and have it over with.

Double check anytime you hear contrary opinions.
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Tuesday Afternoon Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 12:48 AM
Response to Reply #8
12. That is what I was thinking --
I believe you are correct. There was a study done in Miinesota and California IIRC. In 2005 the compression to breath ratio was changed because of this fact.
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Frank Cannon Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 04:41 AM
Response to Reply #8
15. Chest compressions more important: Link to USA Today story
http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2007-03-15-cpr-stud...

I remember hearing about this. I don't think the Red Cross or the AHA have formally adopted the "compressions only" model yet, but it does appear from this study that compressions are more important.
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Book Lover Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Mon Nov-12-07 12:35 PM
Response to Reply #5
24. I had my recert less than a month ago and was taught chest compressions (nm)
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The Doctor. Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 12:04 AM
Response to Original message
7. CHECK AIRWAY BEFORE PERFORMING RESCUE BREATHING!
Edited on Sun Nov-11-07 12:04 AM by Dr_eldritch
If you got this from "Washington edu"... the first three steps need to be updated!

They mention it after that, but it's absolutely crucial that you don't 'CALL' then 'BLOW' without knowing if you won't be doing any good.

Also... it is CRUCIAL to check the scene for safety hazards! If you start trying to resucitate someone in an electrified puddle, or the room is full of gas, you aren't going to help anyone if you die in the process.

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Tuesday Afternoon Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 12:52 AM
Response to Reply #7
13. Observe the scene for your own safety is the first thing to do.
Then try to "shake and shout" the victim....if a baby shake their foot.

However, my understanding is that new data says to start without a mouth sweep....it has been decided that the breaths and compressions are a priority. This is different though, with a baby (age newborn to 11 months) and child (age 1-12) where a mouth sweep is still recommended.
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gateley Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 12:39 AM
Response to Original message
11. K&R - nt Thank you.
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Tuesday Afternoon Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 12:53 AM
Response to Reply #11
14. You are most welcome. Thanks for the K & R
Peace~TA
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unblock Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 08:11 AM
Response to Original message
16. yikes! it's scary what bad info is out there!
naturally i'm all for cpr, but -- please -- done properly. do NOT get your information on emergency medical procedures from internet sites tauting how easy it is. go to the red cross or your local hospital and sign up for a cpr class. you can learn in a few hours and you'll get a booklet that lists the details.

a few examples of the gaps in information:

- first, check scene safety. whatever caused the first victim to need cpr could happen to you, too. ensure your own safety first.

- second, never shake anyone or tilt their head (gak!) unless you are 100% positive that they did not fall. if they have a spinal injury your actions might permanently paralyze or even kill them. you can open the airway by thrusting out the victim's jaw, which does not risk the dangers of bending the neck.

- third, proper techniques, counts, and timing depend on the age of the victim and other factors. cpr for infants is not the same as cpr for adults.

please, just take a course. you won't regret it!

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Tuesday Afternoon Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 09:11 AM
Response to Reply #16
17. please read post #13
thank you.
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knitter4democracy Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 10:29 AM
Response to Original message
18. Hubby just went through ACLS training again--no breathing.
Edited on Sun Nov-11-07 10:30 AM by knitter4democracy
Chest compressions only. They're more effective than the breathing, but they need to be done quickly.

Edited for spelling
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Warpy Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 11:14 AM
Response to Original message
19. When you call, grab a couple of dishtowels on the way
One to put over the mouth when you blow, another to wipe it out because they will barf at some point.

Best not to get an ugly surprise in the middle of a rescue.
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varkam Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 02:21 PM
Response to Reply #19
21. Or you can also apply cricoid pressure, IIRC.
Edited on Sun Nov-11-07 02:21 PM by varkam
Though I think it would need to be a two-rescuer operation to do that effectively. Doing compressions, giving breaths, and applying cricoid pressure is probably a bit much for one person to be doing. Of course, you'll want to be careful not to apply too much pressure or else you could just collapse the airway.

That's actually a good idea with the dish towels. I'll keep that in mind if I don't have a mask available.
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Warpy Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 03:01 PM
Response to Reply #21
22. It's a real world suggestion
Unless you're a spouse, there's a big "ick" factor associated with mouth to mouth breathing. A tea towel can help with that.

They always do barf, too.
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varkam Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 03:07 PM
Response to Reply #22
23. I'm not saying your suggestion is a bad one.
Quite the opposite - I'm going to be on the lookout for a towel if I'm stuck without a mask. I'm just saying that there are ways of preventing gastric inflation.
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varkam Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Sun Nov-11-07 02:17 PM
Response to Original message
20. Don't forget the AED
AEDs (Automatic External Defibrillators) are becoming ubiquitous and they can seriously save lives. They're often found in public places such as malls, parks, airports, etc. If you have to perform CPR on someone in a public place, you'll want to tell someone to get an ambulance and tell another person to find an AED. AEDs can be serious life-savers, and they are also fairly easy to use. Just make sure you don't shock them unless a shock is indicated.

Just as a point of note, when you tell someone to call 911 and tell someone else to get an AED, you're going to want to be specific. Instead of saying "Someone call 911!", you'll want to make eye contact with someone, point at them and say "You! Call an ambulance!" The reason for this is because of something called the bystander effect. The more people that are around, the less likely one individual will be to help as everyone is thinking someone else is going to do it. Scary but true. The way you get around that is by making your orders specific to the person.
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