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Studies Question Plug-in Hybrid Mileage - (e.g. Carnegie Mellon Univ research)

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JohnWxy Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Tue Aug-04-09 06:06 PM
Original message
Studies Question Plug-in Hybrid Mileage - (e.g. Carnegie Mellon Univ research)
http://www.hybridcars.com/news/studies-question-plug-hy...


The Carnegie Mellon is only the latest in a series of recent reports questioning the real-world mileage and benefits of plug-in hybrids. In its February issue, Consumer Reports road-tested a plug-in version of the Toyota Prius and concluded the cost was "more than you could ever expect to recoup in gas savings."


Earlier this week, the Seattle Times reported that the City of Seattles fleet of plug-in hybridsdesigned to run for 30 miles exclusively on electricityis averaging 51 miles per gallon. The search company Google has nine plug-in Prius hybrids used by its employees, and they are achieving an average of 54.9 mpg. These relatively low mileage numbers are partly attributed to the fact that Seattle and Google models were converted to plug-ins from conventional Priuses. Purpose-built plug-in hybrids will benefit from coordinated and optimized systems designed to minimize use of gasoline. In fact, industry observers question if miles-per-gallon is a useful measure of efficiency for vehicles that run entirely or mostly on electricity.

~~
~~


I think we all need to be more careful," said Tom Turrentine, director of the Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Research Center, University of California, Davis, Calif., in an interview with the Seattle Times. When we say we're going to get 100 or 150 miles per gallon , then that's setting expectations way too high. It just leads to disappointment. We need to deal in reality."


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kirby Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Tue Aug-04-09 06:14 PM
Response to Original message
1. This pisses me off...
Edited on Tue Aug-04-09 06:15 PM by kirby
'recoup in gas savings'? Did they factor in the cost of 4330 lives or trillions of dollars spent to defend our sources of oil or the cost of global climate change? Of course they didn't.

Of course when someone remodels to add to their home, it is does not come down to such a strict cost/benefit analysis. Or when people upgrade their home computer with the latest and greatest components, it does not come down to a cost/benefit analysis.

If this is going to be the mentality, the only solution is to add large taxes to fuel. The taxes would represent all those military and environment costs that are currently paid, but not factored into the price of fuel.
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JohnWxy Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Tue Aug-04-09 07:02 PM
Response to Reply #1
2. There are those who think those costs for oil should be part of the price of gas. You might be
heartened to know that ethanol reduced our imports of oil by about 321 million barrels in 2008. What did it cost you?... about 15% LESS for every gallon of gas you are buying (according to Francisco Blanch, Chief Commodities strategist, Merrill Lynch..this is due to something called the Price Elasticity of oil). Now the Government gives up some tax revenue in the form of an excise tax credit to gasoline blenders for every gallon of ethanol that's blended with gasoline. But this excise tax credit to blenders enables them to charge gasoline distributors that amount (the amount of the tax credit) less for gasoline, so it gets passed along as a lower price for gasoline.

I agree, any reduction in oil imports is a good thing, especially a reduction that is happening NOW as opposed to say 10 or 15 years or so in the future. Right now, Plug-in hybrids are reducing oil consumption by about zero gallons.

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kirby Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Tue Aug-04-09 08:45 PM
Response to Reply #2
3. I dont understand...
"Right now, Plug-in hybrids are reducing oil consumption by about zero gallons."

How do you arrive at that? If the plug-in hybrid is getting 51 MPG vs a 20MPG 'regular car', we are reducing our oil consumption by the similar ratio.

As far as ethanol, that is still not a far comparison because we give massive subsidies to the corn industry in this country, so again, there is a huge cost (not to mention the increase in food prices) not factored into the price of fuel.

Corn ethanol subsidies totaled $7.0 billion in 2006 for 4.9 billion gallons of ethanol. That's $1.45 per gallon of ethanol.
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ProgressiveProfessor Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Tue Aug-04-09 11:15 PM
Response to Reply #3
5. Its starts with the fact that hybrids do not use less energy, but different energy
Nothing is for free in physics and Sir Issac always gets paid.

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kristopher Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 12:30 AM
Response to Reply #5
7. Electric drive uses considerably less energy.
Edited on Wed Aug-05-09 12:30 AM by kristopher
All worst case factors considered hybrids are still twice as efficient as internal combustion engines. That means they "use less energy".

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ProgressiveProfessor Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 01:00 AM
Response to Reply #7
9. No, they do not
The wind resistance, rolling resistance etc are the same regardless of propulsion method, what is different is how the the energy doing the work is supplied...this is a narrow physics based argument...think about what it means. How much fuel is consumed to accomplish the work can vary...thus the concept of different energy.

Given the losses involved, I would like to see how you get that hybrids have 2x the efficiency of internal combustion only cars
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kristopher Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 01:08 AM
Response to Reply #9
10. You forgot that 85% of an ICE's energy is lost as heat.
Counting ALL factors with the current grid mix, EVs are (actually somewhat more than) twice as efficient as ICEs.
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ProgressiveProfessor Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 10:55 AM
Response to Reply #10
14. Again, looking for some verfied numbers to back that up
Electric motors are far from 100% efficient and *something* is consumed to generate the electricity (assuming its not PV solar)

Yes the Carnot cycle limits internal combustion motor efficiency , but 2X seems too high. Excessive claims is one of the problems today with the current hybrids.
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kristopher Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 01:59 PM
Response to Reply #14
16. The problem isn't an excessive claim
Edited on Wed Aug-05-09 01:59 PM by kristopher
It is ignorance on your part. Do some fricking research; it isn't that hard to find confirmation if you take the time to look.
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ProgressiveProfessor Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 02:02 PM
Response to Reply #16
18. Its not hard to find the claims...confirmation is serious lacking
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kristopher Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 02:34 PM
Response to Reply #18
19. In other words you haven't looked.
You were totally unaware of the largest component of the comparison - 85% heat loss from the ICE, and yet you expect people to accept that you have even a vague clue?

Not a chance.

Do some research.
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wtmusic Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 02:42 PM
Response to Reply #18
21. Electric vehicles/powerplants are at least twice as efficient
Edited on Wed Aug-05-09 02:43 PM by wtmusic
as internal combusion engines, and though this includes line transmission losses it doesn't include inefficiencies of trucking fuel to some 50,000 service stations around the country

http://www.evadc.org/pwrplnt.pdf

(Table 4)
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bananas Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 04:06 PM
Response to Reply #21
24. "Ovonic fact sheet" ???
Yeah, that's real scientific.
:rofl:
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wtmusic Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 07:39 PM
Response to Reply #24
29. Straight to Wikipedia...you're a real researcher, aren't ya?
Another source that gives essentially the same numbers (g'ahead, laugh your ass off). :rofl:

http://www.veva.bc.ca/wtw/Tesla_20060719.pdf
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kristopher Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Thu Aug-06-09 12:19 AM
Response to Reply #24
30. Actually...
Edited on Thu Aug-06-09 12:21 AM by kristopher
In 1996 (the date of the "Debunking" article) Ovonics was a fuel cell R&D company that consequently had a strong interest in EV efficiency studies. I would speculate that the document you're referencing was probably well known in the circle of people studying the topic. Of course, that would make it gray literature and as such it would lack the veracity of a peer reviewed source, however it would put it on a par with most material produced by Romm or the Google study by Greenblat.

Here is the website for ECD Ovonics.
http://www.ovonic.com/oc_ecd_ovonics.cfm

Interesting reading at the founders list of publications. http://www.ovonic.com/fo_ecd_ovonics_founders.cfm

I don't know about you but I'd rate the individual as probably qualified to put together some numbers on relative efficiency of the two drive systems. The list confirms he was working on NiMH batteries for EVs in the mid90s.


Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications

PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS (great majority invited papers and plenary
presentations)

Physics and Chemistry

1. The Ovonic Switch as an Amorphous Switching Device, Presented at IV
Symposium on Vitreous Chalcogenide Semiconductors, Academy of Sciences of
the USSR, Leningrad (May 23-27, 1967).
2. Ovonic Switching Devices, Presented at the International Colloquium on Amor-
phous and Liquid Semiconductors, Academy of the Socialist Republic of Romania,
Bucharest (September 28-October 3, 1967).
3. Ovonic Switching Devices, Presented at the 2nd Conference on the Characterization
of Materials, Rochester, NY (November 8-10, 1967).
4. Reversible Electrical Switching Phenomena in Disordered Structures, Phys. Rev.
Lett. 21, 1450 (1968).
5. Ovonic Switching Devices, Presented at the American Ceramic Society Meeting,
Chicago, IL (April 20-25, 1968).
6. Ovonic Switching Devices, Presented at the 1968 Electronic Components Con-
ference, Washington, D.C. (May 9, 1968) p. 313.
7. Radiation Hardness of Ovonic Devices (with E. Evans, D. Nelson and H. Fritzsche),
IEEE Trans. Nuclear Sci. NS-15, 311 (1968).
8. Ovonic Switches and Their Applications (with D. Nelson), Proceedings of IEEE
International Convention, New York (March 1969).
9. Switching Devices, Presented at the Dalhousie Seminars on Solid State Physics,
Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (June 30-July 2, 1969) p. 76.
10. Amorphous Semiconductors, Science Journal 5A, 73 (August 1969).
11. The Ovshinsky Switch, Proceedings of the 5th Annual National Conference on
Industrial Research, Chicago, IL (September 1969) p. 86.
12. Amorphous Semiconductors, Electronic Material (Japan) 8, 30 (1969).
13. Simple Band Model for Amorphous Semiconducting Alloys (with M.H. Cohen and H.
Fritzsche), Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1065 (1969).
14. Hopping Conduction in an Amorphous Chalcogenide Alloy Film (with E.A. Fagen
and H. Fritzsche), Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II 14, 311 (1969).
15. Photostimulated Conductivity in an Amorphous Chalcogenide Alloy Film (with H.
Fritzsche and E.A. Fagen), ibid.
16. Electronic Conduction in Amorphous Semiconductors and the Physics of the
Switching and Memory Phenomena (with H. Fritzsche), Presented at SEAS
Symposium, NYC (May 14-17, 1969); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 2, 393 (1970).
17. An Introduction to Ovonic Research, ibid., p. 99.
18. Reversible Conductivity Transformations in Chalcogenide Alloy Films (with E.J.
Evans and J.H. Helbers), ibid., p. 334.
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 2 of 20


19. Structural Studies of Amorphous Semiconductors (with A. Bienenstock and F.
Betts), ibid., p. 347.
20. Conduction and Switching Phenomena in Covalent Alloy Semiconductors (with H.
Fritzsche), Proceedings of the International Conference on Amorphous and Liquid
Semiconductors, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, England (September 24-27,
1969); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 4, 464 (1970).
21. A Qualitative Theory of Electrical Switching Processes in Monostable Amorphous
Structures (with H.K. Henisch and E.A. Fagen), ibid., p. 538.
22. Radial Distribution Studies of Amorphous GexTe1-x Alloys (with F. Betts and A.
Bienenstock), ibid., p. 554.
23. Reflectivity Studies of the Te (Ge, As)-Based Amorphous Semiconductor in the
Conducting and Insulating States (with J. Feinleib), ibid., p. 564.
24. Time Delay for Reversible Electric Switching in Semiconducting Glasses (with K.W.
Boer and G. Doehler), ibid., p. 573.
25. Physics and Device Applications of Switching and Memory Effects in Vitreous
Semiconductors (with H. Fritzsche), Presented at V Symposium on Vitreous
Chalcogenide Semiconductors, Leningrad, USSR (May 25-29, 1970).
26. Switching Effects in Amorphous Semiconductor Thin Films (with H.K. Henisch and
R.W. Pryor), Presented at the International Congress on Thin Films, Cannes,
France (October 5-10, 1970).
27. Development and Application of Amorphous Semiconductors (with R.G. Neale),
Presented at 4th International Congress Microelectronics, Munich, Germany
(November 9-11, 1970).
28. Ovonics and Its Applications, Presented at 1970 International Hybrid Microelec-
tronics Symposium, Beverly Hills, CA (November 16-18, 1970).
29. Amorphous Semiconductors, Detroit Engineers 34, #5, 13 (1970).
30. Analog Models for Information Storage and Transmission in Physiological Systems
(with Iris M. Ovshinsky), Mat. Res. Bull. 5, 681 (1970). (Mott Festschrift)
31. Calorimetric and Dilatometric Studies on Chalcogenide Alloy Glasses (with H.
Fritzsche), J. Non-Cryst. Solids 2, 148 (1970).
32. Electrical Conductivity of Amorphous Chalcogenide Alloy Films (with E.A. Fagen
and H. Fritzsche), ibid., p. 170.
33. Electrothermal Initiation of an Electronic Switching Mechanism in Semiconducting
Glasses (with K.W. Boer), Appl. Phys. 41, 2675 (1970).
34. Reversible High-Speed High-Resolution Imaging in Amorphous Semiconductors
(with P.H. Klose), Presented at 1971 Society for Information Display International
Symposium, Philadelphia, PA (May 4-6,1971); Digest of Technical Papers (May
1971) p. 58.
35. Glass Switch, McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology 13, 360
(1971).
36. New Materials for Electronics (with H. Henisch), Encyclopedia of Science and
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 3 of 20


Technology, Italy (1971) p. 400 (I semiconduttori amorfi, Stanford R. Ovshinsky e
Heinz K. Henisch, in Encyclopedia della Scienza e della Tecnica 71, A.
Mondadori, Editore, 1971, p. 402.)
37. Rapid Reversible Light-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Semiconductors (with
J. Feinleib, J. deNeufville and S.C. Moss), Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 254 (1971).
38. Reversible Structural Transformations in Amorphous Semiconductors for Memory
and Logic (with H. Fritzsche), Metallurgical Transactions 2, 641 (1971).
39. Imaging in Amorphous Materials by Structural Alteration (with P.H. Klose),
Presented at 4th International Conference on Amorphous and Liquid
Semiconductors, Ann Arbor, MI (August 9-13, 1971); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 8-10, 892
(1972).
40. Reversible Optical Effects in Amorphous Semiconductors (with J. Feinleib, S. Iwasa,
S.C. Moss and J.P. deNeufville), ibid., p. 909.
41. The Transmission, Storage and Control of Information in Amorphous Materials,
Presented at 4th Annual Spring Meeting of the Metallurgical Society of AIME,
Boston, MA (May 8-11, 1972).
42. New Thin-Film Tunnel Triode Using Amorphous Semiconductors (with R.F. Shaw,
H. Fritzsche, M. Silver, P. Smejtek and S. Holmberg), Appl. Phys. Lett 20, 241
(1972).
43. Ovonics Revisited, Industrial Research 14, 48 (1972).
44. Optical Information Encoding in Amorphous Semiconductors, Presented at the
Topical Meeting on Optical Storage of Digital Data, Aspen, CO (March 19-21, 1973).
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 4 of 20


45. Amorphous Materials and the Computer, Presented at Engineering Society of
Detroit (October 11, 1973).
46. Amorphous Semiconductors for Switching, Memory, and Imaging Applications (with
H. Fritzsche), IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, ED-20, 91 (1973).
47. Mechanism of Reversible Optical Storage in Evaporated Amorphous AsSe and
Ge10As40Se50 (with J.P. deNeufville, R. Seguin and S.C. Moss), Proceedings of the
5th International Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors Conference, Garmisch-
Partenkirchen, Germany (September 1973), edited by J. Stuke & W. Brenig (Taylor
and Francis, London, 1974) p.737.
48. Three Dimensional Model of Structure and Electronic Properties of Chalcogenide
Glasses (with K. Sapru), ibid. p. 447.
49. Photostructural Transformations in Amorphous As2Se3 and As2S3 Films (with J.P.
deNeufville and S.C. Moss), J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1973/1974).
50. Amorphous Materials as Information Storage Media, Presented at Iowa State
University, Joint Electrical Engineering and Physics Colloquium (January 28, 1974).
51. Applications of New Memory Material to Electronic Imaging, Presented at University
of Pittsburgh, Medical School, Pittsburgh, PA (February 13, 1974).
52. Amorphous Read Mostly Memory, Presented at University of Illinois, Urbana, IL
(March 12, 1974).
53. Optical Information Encoding in Amorphous Semiconductors (with Iris M.
Ovshinsky), Presented at the 14th Annual Fall Symposium of Society of Photo-
graphic Scientists and Engineers, Washington, D.C. (October 23-26, 1974).
54. Imaging by Photostructural Changes (with P.H. Klose), Proceedings of the
Symposium on Nonsilver Photographic Processes, held at New College, Oxford
(September 1973); Non-Silver Photographic Processes, edited by R.J. Cox
(Academic Press, London, 1975) p. 61.
55. Electronic and Structural Changes in Amorphous Materials as a Means of Infor-
mation Storage and Imaging, Proceedings of the 4th International Congress for
Reprography and Information, Hanover, Germany (April 13-17, 1975) p.109.
56. A New Means of Information Storage, Presented at the 1975 Summer Symposium
of the Society of Photographic Scientists and Engineers, Bloomington, MN (June
24-27, 1975).
57. Amorphous Materials as Optical Information Media, Presented at the International
Laser Exposition and Electro-Optical Systems Design Conference, Anaheim, CA
(November 11-13, 1975); J. Appl. Photographic Eng. 3, 35 (1977).
58. Amorphous Materials as Interactive Systems, Proceedings of the 6th International
Conference on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Leningrad (November 18-
24, 1975) p. 426.
59. An Experimental Study of Threshold Switching in Some Binary Chalcogenide-Based
Glass Films (with R.A. Flasck, M.P. Shaw and K. Dec), ibid. p. 490.
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 5 of 20


60. The Basic Concepts of Amorphous Semiconductors, Presented at Stanford
University, Stanford, CA (January 21, 1976).
61. Lone-Pair Relationships and the Origin of Excited States in Amorphous Chalco-
genides, Proceedings of the International Topical Conference on Structure and
Excitation of Amorphous Solids, Williamsburg, VA (March 24-27, 1976) p. 31.
62. Localized States in the Gap of Amorphous Semiconductors, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36,
1471 (1976).
63. Amorphous Materials as Optical Information Media, Presented at SPIE/SPSE
Technical Symposium, East Reston, VA (March 22-25, 1976); J. Appl. Photographic
Engineering 3, 35 (1977).
64. Chemical Modification of Amorphous Chalcogenides, Proceedings of the 7th
International Conference on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Edinburgh,
Scotland (June 27-July 1, 1977) p. 519.
65. Optical and Electronic Properties of Modified Amorphous Materials (with R.A.
Flasck, M. Izu, K. Sapru, T. Anderson and H. Fritzsche), ibid. p. 524.
66. Modification of SiOx (with K. Sapru and K. Dec), Proceedings of the International
Topical Conference on the Physics of Si02 and its Interfaces, Yorktown Heights, NY
(March 22-24, 1978) p. 304.
67. Local Structure, Bonding and Electronic Properties of Covalent Amorphous
Semiconductors (with D. Adler), Presented at the APS March Meeting, Washington,
D.C. (March 27-30, 1978); Contemp. Phys. 19, 109 (1978).
68. Amorphous Photovoltaic Cells (with A. Madan), Proceedings of the Solar Energy
Symposia of the 1978 Annual Meeting of the American Section of the International
Solar Energy Society, Inc., Denver, CO (August 28-31, 1978).
69. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, book review, edited by A.S. Strub, American
Scientist 66, 616 (September-October 1978).
70. Solar Electricity Speeds Down to Earth, New Scientist 80 (November 30, 1978), p.
674.
71. A New Amorphous Silicon-Based Alloy for Electronic Applications (with A. Madan),
Nature 276, 482 (November 30, 1978).
72. Low-Cost Photovoltaic Devices Using Amorphous Materials (with A. Madan),
Presented at the Symposium on Applied Technology to Solar Energy Systems,
Jurica, Queretaro, Mexico (January 29 - February 3, 1979).
73. New Amorphous Materials for Computer Use, Presented at the 18th IEEE
Computer Society International Conference, San Francisco, CA (February 26-March
1, 1979) p. 158.
74. The Inventor as a Catalyst, Proceedings of the 33rd National Conference on the
Advancement of Research, Pennsylvania State University State College,
Pennsylvania (October 7-10, 1979).
75. An Innovative Approach to New Sources of Energy Through Amorphous Materials,
Presented at the UNITAR Conference on Long Term Energy Resources, Montreal,
Canada (November 26-December 7, 1979) p. 783.
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 6 of 20


76. Electrical and Optical Properties of Amorphous Si:F:H Alloys (with A. Madan and E.
Benn), Phil. Mag. B.40, 259 (1979).
77. The Shape of Disorder, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 32, 17 (1979). (Mott Festschrift)
78. Some Electrical and Optical Properties of A-Si:F:H Alloys (with A. Madan, W.
Czubatyj and M. Shur), Presented at the 21st Electronic Materials Conference,
University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (June 27-29, 1979); J. Elect. Mat. 9, 385
(1980).
79. Properties of Amorphous Si:F:H Alloys (with A. Madan), Presented at the 8th
International Conference on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Cambridge,
MA (August 27-31, 1979); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 171 (1980).
80. Book Review on The Physics of Selenium and Tellurium, edited by E. Gerlach and
P. Grosse, American Scientist 68 (May-June 1980) p.316.
81. The Chemistry of Glassy Materials and Their Relevance to Energy Conversion,
Proceedings of the International Conference: Frontiers of Glass Science, Los
Angeles, CA (July 16-18, 1980); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 42, 335 (1980).
82. Effect of an Interfacial Oxide in Amorphous Si:F:H Alloy Based MIS Devices (with A.
Madan, J. McGill, W. Czubatyj, J. Yang and M. Shur), Presented at the SPIE − The
International Society for Optical Engineering Conference on Role of Electro-Optics
in Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, San Diego, CA (July 31-August 1, 1980); SPIE
Proc. Vol. 248, p. 26.
83. Electronic and Vibrational Properties of Glow-Discharge Amorphous Si:F:H (with R.
Tsu, M. Izu and V. Cannella), Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on
Physics of Semiconductors, Kyoto, Japan (September 1-5, 1980); J. Phys. Soc.
Japan 49 (1980) Suppl. A, p.1249.
84. The Important Roles Played by Selenium and Tellurium in Amorphous Materials,
Presented at the International Symposium on Industrial Uses of Selenium and
Tellurium, Toronto, Canada (October 21-23, 1980).
85. Electroreflectance and Raman Scattering Investigation of Glow-Discharge
Amorphous Si:F:H (with R. Tsu, M. Izu and F.H. Pollak), Solid State Comm. 36, 817
(1980).
86. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Solar Cells Using Amorphous Si:F:H Alloys (with A.
Madan, J. McGill, W. Czubatyj and J. Yang), Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 826 (1980).
87. New Experiments on Threshold Switching in Chalcogenide and Non-Chalcogenide
Alloys (with K. Homma and H.K. Henisch), J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 1105 (1980).
88. Threshold Switching in Chalcogenide Glass Thin Films (with D. Adler, M. Shur and
M. Silver), J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3289 (1980).
89. The Immediacy of Alternative Energy, presentation sponsored by Nihon Keizai
Shimbun, the Japanese Economic Journal and Science, Japanese Scientific
American (February 26, 1981) and several presentations in the 1970s.
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 7 of 20


90. High Efficiency, Large-Area Photovoltaic Devices Using Amorphous Si:F:H Alloy
(with A. Madan, W. Czubatyj, J. Yang and J. McGill), Presented at the 9th
International Conference on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Grenoble,
France (July 2-8, 1981); J. de Physique 42, Suppl. 10 (1981) p. C4-463.
91. The Nature of Intermediate Range Order in Si:F:H :(P) Alloy Systems (with R. Tsu,
S.S. Chao, M. Izu, G.J. Jan and F.H. Pollak), ibid. p. C4-269.
92. Principles and Applications of Amorphicity, Structural Change, and Optical Infor-
mation Encoding, ibid. p. C4-1095.
93. The Chemical Basis of Amorphicity: Structure and Function, Revue Roumaine de
Physique 26, 893 (1981). (Grigorovici Festschrift)
94. This Week's Citation Classic Phenomena in Disordered Structures, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1450 (1968)], Current
Contents 22, 18 ( March 8, 1982).
95. Progress in Large Area Photovoltaic Devices Based on Amorphous Silicon Alloys
(with J.P. deNeufville and M. Izu), Proceedings of the 16th Intersociety Energy
Conversion Engineering Conference, Atlanta, GA (August 9-14, 1981);
Photovoltaics, The Solar Electric Magazine 3, 2217 (August/September 1982).
96. Correlation Between the Superconducting and Normal State Properties of
Amorphous Molybdenum − Silicon Alloys (with A.S. Edelstein, H. Sadate-Akhavi
and J. Wood), Solid State Comm. 41, 139 (1982).
97. Switch, Glass (with D. Adler) McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology
(McGraw-Hill Book Company, 5th through 8th Editions, 1982-1994).
98. Commercial Development of Ovonic Thin Film Solar Cells, Presented at the SPIE −
The International Society for Optical Engineering Symposium on Photovoltaics for
Solar Energy Applications II, Arlington, VA (April 5-6, 1983); SPIE Proc. Vol. 407, p.
5.
99. Production of Tandem Amorphous Silicon Alloy Solar Cells in a Continuous Roll-to-
Roll Process (with M. Izu), ibid. p. 42.
100. Innovation: Building a New Industrial Society, Presented at the American Associa-
tion for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Youth Symposium, Detroit, MI (May
26, 1983).
101. Improving the Business Environment in the Midwest for High Industry, Presented at
OHMCON/83 on Hi-Technology, Hi-Growth Industries − Cultivating them in the
Midwest, Detroit, MI (June 14-16, 1983).
102. Amorphous Photovoltaics − Introduction and Scientific Background, Presented at the
Conference on Nonconventional Energy Sources and Summer Workshop on the
Physics of Nonconventional Energy Sources, Miramare-Trieste, Italy (June 20 - July
8, 1983).
103. Amorphous Photovoltaics − Technology and Production, ibid.
104. Present Status of the Science and Technology of Amorphous Solids (with D. Adler),
Nikkei Science (Japanese Scientific American) (August 1983) p. 60.
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 8 of 20


105. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection of Reactive Intermediates in Diffusion
Flames and in Glow-Discharge Deposition Reactors (with H.U. Lee and J.
deNeufville), Presented at the 10th International Conference on Amorphous and
Liquid Semiconductors, Tokyo, Japan (August 1983); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59/60,
671 (1983).
106. The Role of Free Radicals in the Formation of Amorphous Thin Films, Proceedings
of the International Ion Engineering Congress, ISIAT '83 & IPAT '83, Kyoto, Japan
(September 12-16, 1983) p. 817.
107. Order Parameters in a-Si Systems (with R. Tsu, J. Gonzales-Hernandez and J.
Doehler), Solid State Comm. 46, 79 (1983).
108. Roll-to-Roll Plasma Deposition Machine for the Production of Tandem Amorphous
Silicon Alloy Solar Cells (with M. Izu), Presented at the International Conference on
Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego, CA (April 9-13, 1984); Thin Solid Films 119, 55
(1984).
109. Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells, Presented at the American Vacuum Society
Symposium on Coatings for Large-Scale Metallurgical, Optical, and Electronic
Applications, Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annadale, NJ (June 13,
1984); J. Vacuum Science and Technology B 2, 835 (1984).
110. Roll-to-Roll Mass Production Process for a-Si Solar Cell Fabrication, Presented at
the 1st International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, Kobe,
Japan (November 13-16, 1984) p. 577.
111. Asymmetric Flux-Flow Behavior in Superconducting Multi-layered Composites (with
A.M. Kadin, R.W. Burkhardt, J.T. Chen and J.E. Keem), Proceedings of the 17th
International Conference on Low Temperature Physics, edited by U. Eckern, A.
Schmid, W. Weber and W. Wühl (Elsevier Science Publishers, 1984).
112. Properties of Amorphous Semiconducting Multilayer Films (with J. Kakalios, H.
Fritzsche and N. Ibaraki), J. Non-Cryst. Solids 66, 339 (1984).
113. Reply to "Comment on 'Threshold Switching in Chalcogenide Glass Thin Films',"
(with D. Adler, M.S. Shur and M. Silver), J. Appl. Physics 56, 579 (1984).
114. Amorphous Materials − Past, Present and Future, Presented at the Symposium on
Glass Science and Technology − Problems and Prospects for 2004, Vienna, Austria
(July 3, 1984); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 73, 395 (1985). (Kreidl Festschrift)
115. Superconducting Properties of Amorphous Multilayer Metal-Semiconductor
Composites (with A.M. Kadin, R.W. Burkhardt, J.T. Chen and J.E. Keem),
Presented at the Materials Research Society Meeting, Boston, MA (November 26-
30, 1984); in Layered Structures Epitaxy and Interfaces, edited by J. M. Gibon and
L. R. Dawson; Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 37, 503 (1985).
116. Basic Anticrystalline Chemical Bonding Configurations and Their Structural and
Physical Implications, Presented at the International Conference on the Theory of
the Structures of Non-Crystalline Solids, Institute for Amorphous Studies, Bloomfield
Hills, MI (June 3-6, 1985); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 75, 161 (1985).
117. Chemical Bond Approach to Glass Structure (with J. Bicerano), ibid., p. 169.
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 9 of 20


118. Amorphous Photovoltaics (with D. Adler), Chemtech 15, 538 (September 1985).
119. Low Pressure Microwave Glow Discharge Process for High Deposition Rate
Amorphous Silicon Alloy (with S.J. Hudgens and A.G. Johncock), Presented at the
11th International Conference on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Rome,
Italy (September 2-6, 1985); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/88, 809 (1985).
120. The Chemical and Configurational Basis of High Efficiency Amorphous Photovoltaic
Cells, Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Las
Vegas, NV (October 21-25, 1985) p. 1365.
121. Experience in Licensing, Presented at the Conference on Technology Transfer and
Licensing Opportunities in the Energy Sector, Copenhagen, Denmark (November
11-13, 1985).
122. Chemical Bond Approach to the Structures of Chalcogenide Glasses with
Reversible Switching Properties (with J. Bicerano), J. Non-Cryst. Solids 74, 75
(1985).
123. Chemistry and Structure in Amorphous Materials: The Shape of Things to Come, in
Physics of Disordered Materials, edited by D. Adler, H. Fritzsche and S. R.
Ovshinsky, Institute for Amorphous Studies Series (Plenum Press, New York, 1985)
p. 37. (Mott Festschrift)
124. Critical Materials Parameters for the Development of Amorphous Silicon Alloys (with
D. Adler), Presented at the 1985 Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San
Francisco, CA (April 15-18, 1985); in Materials Issues in Applications of
Amorphous Silicon Technology, D. Adler, A. Madan and M. J. Thompson, editors;
Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 49, 251 (1985).
125. A Figure of Merit Evaluation of Amorphous Silicon Alloy Solar Cells (with J.A. Yang),
Proceedings of the 1985 International Conference on Solar and Wind Energy
Applications, China (Academic Publishers) p. 75.
126. Fundamentals of Amorphous Materials, in Physical Properties of Amorphous
Materials, edited by D. Alder, B.B. Schwartz and M.S. Steele, Institute for Amor-
phous Studies Series (Plenum Press, 1985) p. 105.
127. Nevill Mott Appreciation (with I.M. Ovshinsky), in Appreciations Philosophical
Magazine B 52, pp. 215-224 (1985). (Mott Festschrift)
128. A New Role for Vacuum Technology (with D. Adler), Proceedings of the 28th
Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, Washington, D.C.
(1985) p. 1.
129. Superconducting Properties of Sputtered Mo-C Films and Columnar Microstructure
(with J. Wood, J.E. Keem, J.T. Chen, A.M. Kadin and R.W. Burkhardt), IEEE
Transactions on Magnetics MAG-21, 842 (1985).
130. Intuition and Quantum Chemistry, Proceedings of the Nobel Laureate Symposium
on Applied Quantum Chemistry (in honor of G. Herzberg, R.S. Mulliken, K. Fukui,
W. Lipscomb and R. Hoffman), Honolulu, HI (December 16-21, 1984); Applied
Quantum Chemistry, edited by V. H. Smith, Jr. et al. (D. Reidel Publishing, 1986) p.
27.
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 10 of 20


131. Chemical Bonding and the Nature of Glass Structure (with J. Bicerano), ibid., p.325.
132. Amorphous Semiconductors for Microelectronics, Presented at the SPIE The
International Society for Optical Engineering on Amorphous Semiconductors for
Microelectronics, Los Angeles, CA (January 21-22, 1986); SPIE Proc. Vol. 617, p.
2.
133. Macro-Engineering: The Crucial Element in Creating a Photovoltaic Industry,
Presented at the American Society for Macro-Engineering conference on Macro-
Engineering: The New Challenge, Washington, D.C. (March 13-14, 1986).
134. Solving the Problems of Efficiency, Stability and Production in Amorphous Photo-
voltaic Devices, Presented at Electronic Materials Processing, AIChE Meeting,
Boston, MA (August 24-26, 1986).
135. Progress in the Science and Application of Amorphous Materials (with D. Adler),
Proceedings of the International Conference on Non-Crystalline Semiconductors
'86, Balatonszeplak, Hungary (September 15-20, 1986); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90,
229 (1987).
136. The Breaking of the Efficiency-Stability-Production Barrier in Amorphous Photo-
voltaics (with J. Yang), Presented at the SPIE − The International Society for Optical
Engineering Conference on Photovoltaics for Commercial Solar Power Applications,
Cambridge, MA (September 18-91,1986); SPIE Proc. Vol. 706, p. 88.
137. New Material Innovation − Birth of Synthetic Material Age, Presented at the 1st
International New Materials Conference & Exhibition, Osaka, Japan (October 16-19,
1986).
138. Crucial Parameters in Amorphous Solar Cells (with J. Yang), Presented at the 7th
European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, University of Seville, Spain
(October 27-31, 1986).
139. Effects of Transition-Metal Elements on Tellurium Alloys for Reversible Optical-Data
Storage (with R. Young, D. Strand and J. Gonzales-Hernandez), J. Appl. Physics
60, 4319 (1986).
140. A Simplified Summary of the ECD Model Explaining the Mechanism of High
Temperature Superconductivity in Topics in Non-Crystalline Semiconductors −
In Memory of David Adler 1937 1987, edited by Hellmut Fritzsche and Ai-Lien
Jung, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, (1987), P. 186.
141. Amorphous Silicon Alloys − The Basis for High Efficiency, High Stability, Low Cost
Photovoltaics (with J. Yang), Presented at the International Symposium-Workshop
on Silicon Technology Development and its Role in the Sun-Belt Countries,
Islamabad, Pakistan (June 14-18, 1987).
142. Superconductivity in Fluorinated Copper Oxide Ceramics (With R.T. Young, B.S.
Chao, G. Fournier and D.A. Pawlik), Presented at the International Conference on
High Temperature Superconductivity, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (July 29-
30, 1987); Reviews of Solid State Science 1, 207 (1987).
143. Fluorinated Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Alloys Deposited from Disilane-
Germane Mixture (with S. Guha, J.S. Payson and S.C. Agarwal), Presented at the
12th International Conference on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Prague
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 11 of 20


(August 24-28, 1987); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97/98, 1455 (1987).
144. Superconductivity at 155K and Room Temperature, Presented at Superconductors
in Electronics Commercialization Workshop, San Francisco, CA (September 14-15,
1987).
145. 1 MW Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film PV Manufacturing Plant (with P. Nath, K.
Hoffman, J. Call, C. Vogeli and M. Izu), Presented at the 3rd International Photo-
voltaic Science and Engineering Conference, Tokyo, Japan (November 3-6, 1987)
p. 395.
146. Continuous Web Deposition of Amorphous Photovoltaics (with P. Nath), Presented
at 1st International Conference on Vacuum Web Coating, New Orleans, LA
(November 29 - December 1, 1987).
147. Superconductivity in the Fluorinated YBaCuO (with R.T. Young, B.S. Chao, G.
Fournier and D.A. Pawlik), Presented by the Materials Research Society Meeting,
Boston, Massachusetts (November 30 - December 5, 1987).
148. Passivation of Dangling Bonds in Amorphous Si and Ge by Gas Absorption (with R.
Tsu, D. Martin and J. Gonzalez-Hernandez), Physical Review B 35, 2385 (1987).
149. The Quantum Nature of Amorphous Solids in Disordered Semiconductors, edited
by M. A. Kastner, G. A. Thomas and S. R. Ovshinsky, Institute for Amorphous
Studies Series (Plenum Press, New York, 1987) p. 195. (Fritzsche Festschrift)
150. A Structural Chemical Model for High Tc Ceramic Superconductors (with S.J.
Hudgens, R.L. Lintvedt and D.B. Rorabacher), Modern Phys. Lett. B 1, 275 (1987).
151. Superconductivity at 155K (with R.T. Young, D.D. Allred, G. DeMaggio and G.A.
Van der Leeden), Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2579 (1987).
152. Keynote address at the Hydrogen Photo Production Workshop II, Hawaii (January
13, 1988).
153. A New, Inexpensive, Thin Film Photovoltaic Power Module (with P. Nath, K.
Hoffman, C. Vogeli and K. Whelan), Presented at the 20th IEEE Photovoltaic
Specialists Conference, Las Vegas, NV (September 26-30, 1988) p. 1315.
154. Yield and Performance of Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells Using Roll-to-Roll
Deposition (with K. Hoffman, P. Nath, J. Call, G. DiDio and C. Vogeli), ibid., p. 293.
155. Conversion Process for Passivating Current Shunting Paths in Amorphous Silicon
Alloy Solar Cells (with P. Nath, K. Hoffman and C. Vogeli), Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 986
(1988).
156. A Novel Design for Amorphous Silicon Alloy Solar Cells (with S. Guha, J. Yang,
A. Pawlikiewicz, T. Glatfelter and R. Ross), Proceedings of the 20th IEEE PVSC
(1988) p. 79.
157. A Personal Adventure in Stereochemistry, Local Order and Defects: Models for
Room Temperature Superconductivity, in "Disorder and Order in the Solid State:
Concepts and Devices," Institute for Amorphous Studies Series, edited by R. W.
Pryor, B. B. Schwartz and S. R. Ovshinsky (Plenum Press, New York, 1988) p. 143.
(Heinz Henisch Festschrift)
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 12 of 20


158. Fabrication and Performance of Amorphous Silicon Based Tandem Photovoltaic
Devices and Modules (with P. Nath and K. Hoffman), Presented at the 4th Inter-
national Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference (PVSEC-4), Sydney,
Australia (February 1989).
159. Solar Energy and Superconductivity − Opposite Sides of the Same Coin, Presented
at the ISES Solar World Congress, Kobe, Japan (September 4-8, 1989).
160. Band Gap Profiling for Improving the Efficiency of Amorphous Silicon Alloy Solar
Cells (with S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Pawlikiewicz, T. Glatfelter and R. Ross), Appl.
Phys. Lett. 54, 2330 (1989).
161. This Week's Citation Classic DeMaggio and G.A. Van der Leeden, Superconductivity at 155K, Phys. Rev. Lett.
58, 2579 (1987)], Current Contents 30, 20 (February 19, 1990).
162. Production of 20 A Sec-1 a-Si Alloys for Use in Solar Cells (with P. Nath, K.
Hoffman, J. Call and G. DiDio), Proceedings of the 21st IEEE Photovoltaic
Specialists Conference, Kissimimee, FL (May 21-25, 1990).
163. Unusual Fluorination Effects of Superconducting Films (with R.T. Young), Presented
at the SPIE − The International Society for Optical Engineering Symposium on
Modeling of Optical Thin Films II, San Diego, CA (July 12-13, 1990); SPIE Proc. Vol.
1324, p. 32.
164. Ovonic Ni-Metal Hydride Batteries for Electric Vehicles (with S. Venkatesan, M.
Fetcenko and S. Dhar), Presented at the 24th ISATA, Florence, Italy (May 21, 1991).
(Awarded the Toyota Prize for Advancement)
165. Structural Changes Induced by Thermal Annealing in W/C Multilayers (with B.S.
Chao, J. Gonzalez-Hernandez, D. Pawlik, J. Scholhamer, J. Wood and K. Parker),
Presented at the SPIE − The International Society for Optical Engineering on
Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-ray Applications, San Diego, CA (July 22-23, 91);
SPIE Proc. Vol. 1547, 196 (1991).
166. An Approach to the Puzzle of High Temperature Superconductivity − A Letter to
David Adler, Epilogue to Disordered Materials: Science and Technology − Selected
Papers by Stanford R. Ovshinsky, 2nd Edition, edited by David Adler, Brian B.
Schwartz and Marvin Silver, Institute for Amorphous Studies Series (Plenum Press,
New York, 1991).
167. The Chemical Basis of High Temperature Superconductivity: Structure and
Function, Revue Roumaine De Physique 36, 761 (1991). (Grigorovici Festschrift)
168. Performance Advances in Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries for Electric
Vehicles (with S. Dhar, S. Venkatesan, M. Fetcenko, P. Gifford and D. Corrigan),
Presented at the 11th International Electric Vehicle Symposium, Florence, Italy
(September 1992). (Awarded best paper on batteries)
169. Amorphous Silicon Alloys The Future Technology in Photovoltaics (with M. Izu
and H.C. Ovshinsky), Presented at World Renewable Energy Congress, Reading,
United Kingdom (September 1992).
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 13 of 20


170. Crystallization Studies of Ge:Sb:Te Optical Memory Materials (with J. Gonzalez-
Hernandez, B. Chao, D. Strand, D. Pawlik and P. Gasiorowski), Appl. Phys. Comm.
11, 557 (1992).
171. High Quality Epitaxial YBCO (F) Films Directly Deposited on Sapphire (with R.
Young, K. Young and M. Muller), Physica C 200, 437 (1992).
172. Optically Induced Phase Changes in Amorphous Materials, J. Non-Cryst. Solids
141, 200 (1992). (Tauc Festschrift)
173. The Origin of Pairing in High-Tc Superconductors, Chem. Phys. Lett. 195, 455
(1992).
174. The Relationship Between Crystal Structure and Performance as Optical Recording
Media in Te-Ge-Sb Thin Films (with D. Strand, J. Gonzalez-Hernandez, B. Chao
and P. Gasiorowski and D. Pawlik), Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 230, 251 (1992).
175. Toward the Elimination of Light-Induced Degradation of Amorphous Si by Fluorine
Incorporation (with X. Deng, E. Mytilineou and R. Young), Mat. Res. Soc. Symp.
Proc. 258, 491 (1992).
176. A Mechanism for High Temperature Superconductivity, Presented at the 3rd
International Conference & Exhibition, World Congress on Superconductivity,
Munich, Germany (September 1992); Applied Superconductivity 1, 263 (1993).
177. Advancements in Ovonic Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries for Portable and EV
Applications (with P. Gifford, S. Venkatesan, M. Fetcenko, D. Corrigan and S.
Dhar), Presented at the 10th International Seminar on Primary and Secondary
Battery Technology and Applications, Deerfield Beach, FL (March 1993).
178. Manufacturing of Triple-Junction 4 ft2 a-Si Alloy PV Modules (with M. Izu, X. Deng,
A. Krisko, K. Whelan, R. Young, H.C. Ovshinsky and K.L. Narasimhan),
Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, Louisville, KY
(May 10-14, 1993).
179. Continuous Roll-to-Roll Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology,
Presented at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Program Review
Meeting, Denver, CO (October 1993).
180. A Nickel Metal Hydride Battery for Electric Vehicles (with M.A. Fetcenko and J.
Ross), Science 260, 176 (1993).
181. Ovonic NiMH Batteries for Electric Vehicle Application (with S.K. Dhar and M.A.
Fetcenko), Presented at the Symposium of the Society of Automotive Engineers of
Japan, Inc. (February 1994).
182. Ovonic NiMH Batteries for Portable and EV Applications (with S. Dhar, M. Fetcenko,
S. Venkatesan, A. Holland, P. Gifford and D. Corrigan), Presented at the 11th
International Seminar on Primary and Secondary Battery Technology Application
(March 1, 1994).
183. Amorphous Silicon Alloy Photovoltaic Technology From R&D to Production
(with S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, T. Glatfelter, K. Hoffman, M. Izu, H.
Ovshinsky and X Deng), Presented at Materials Research Society Spring
Meeting, San Francisco, CA (April 1994).
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 14 of 20


184. Historique du Changement de Phase, Memoires Optiques & Systems, No. 127
(September 1994) p. 65.
185. Advances in Ovonic Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
(with P.R. Gifford, M.A. Fetcenko, S. Venkatesan, D.A. Corrigan, A. Holland and
S.K. Dhar), Presented at the 186th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Miami,
FL (October 1994).
186. Ovonic Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries for Consumer and Electric Vehicle Appli-
cations (with S. Venkatesan, S.K. Dhar, D.A. Corrigan, M.A. Fetcenko and P.R.
Gifford), Presented at the 5th International Symposium on Advances in Electro-
chemical Science and Technology, Madras, India (November 24-26, 1994).
187. Roll-to-Roll Microwave PECVD Machine for High Barrier Film Coatings (with M.
Izu and B. Dotter), Presented at the International Conference of Vacuum Web
Coating (November 1994).
188. Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride Electric Vehicle Batteries: From the First 10,000 Miles
to the First 10,000 Vehicles (with D.A. Corrigan, S. Venkatesan, P.R. Gifford, M.A.
Fetcenko and S.K. Dhar), Presented at the 12th International Electric Vehicle
Symposium, Anaheim, CA (December 1994).
189. Continuous Roll-to-Roll Serpentine Deposition for High Throughput a-Si PV
Manufacturing (with M. Izu, H.C. Ovshinsky, X. Deng, A.J. Krisko, K.L. Narasimhan,
R. Crucet, T. Larman and A. Myatt), Presented at the 1994 IEEE First World
Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Waikola, HI (December 5-9, 1994)
p. 820.
190. Dependence of a-Si Solar Cell Voc on Deposition Temperatures (with X. Deng, K.L.
Narasimhan, J. Evans and M. Izu), ibid., p. 678.
191. Lightweight Flexible Rooftop PV Module (with M. Izu, H.C. Ovshinsky, K. Whelan
and L. Fatalski), ibid., p. 990.
192. The Material Basis of Efficiency and Stability in Amorphous Photovoltaics, Solar
Energy Materials and Solar Cells 32, 443 (1994). (Seraphin Festschrift)
193. Stability Test of 4 FT2 Triple-Junction a-Si Alloy PV Production Modules (with X.
Deng, M. Izu and K.L. Narasimhan), Presented at the MRS Spring Meeting on
Amorphous Silicon Technology, San Francisco, CA (1994); Mat. Res. Soc.
Symp. Proc. 336, 699 (1994).
194. Lifting the Tyranny of the Lattice: A Revolution in Progress (with I.M. Ovshinsky),
Norbert Kreidls Festschrift, Liechtenstein (July 3-8, 1994); Proceedings of the
Norbert Kreidl Symposium on Present State and Future Prospects of Glass Science
and Technology Vol. 70C (1997).
195. Ovonic NiMH Battery Technology for Portable and Electric Vehicle Application (with
M. Fetcenko, S. Dhar, S. Venkatesan, A. Holland, P. Gifford and D. Corrigan),
Presented at the 12th International Seminar on Primary and Secondary Battery
Technology Application, Deerfield Beach, FL (March 1995).
196. Ion and Neutral Argon Temperatures in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasmas by
Doppler Broadened Emission Spectroscopy (with David V. Tsu, R.T. Young, C.C.
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 15 of 20


Klepper* and L.A. Barry* (*Oak Ridge Natl. Lab.)), J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 935
(May/June 1995).
197. Product Development Through Advances in Materials Science at ECD/OBC (with
M.A. Fetcenko and S.J. Hudgens), Daido Journal (1995).
198. Ovonic NiMH Battery Technology for Portable and Electric Vehicle Application (with
M. Fetcenko, S. Venkatesan, S. Dhar, A. Holland, R. Young, P. Gifford, D. Corrigan,
A. Ng* and R. Tsang* (*GP Batteries)), Presented at the 13th International Seminar
on Primary and Secondary Battery Technology and Application, Deerfield Beach,
FL (March 1996).
199. PV Metal Roofing Module (with T. Ellison, L. Fatalski, R. Kopf, H. Ovshinsky, M.
Izu, R. Souleyrette, K. Whelan, J. Wiehagen and L. Zarker), Presented at the 25th
IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, Washington D.C. (May 13-17, 1996).
200. Ovonic NiMH Batteries Technology − Advanced Technology for Electric Vehicle and
Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (with R.C. Stempel, S.K. Dhar, M.A. Fetcenko,
P.R. Gifford, S. Venkatesan, D.A. Corrigan and R. Young), Presented at the 29th
International Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation, Florence,
Italy (June 1996).
201. Amorphous Silicon Alloys The Optoelectronic Materials that Set the Trend for
Photovoltaic Applications (with J.C. Yang), Presented at the International Mate-
rials Research Congress, Cancun, Mexico (September 1-5, 1996).
202. Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride EV Batteries Powering Electric Cars, Trucks,
Scooters and Bicycles Worldwide (with D.A. Corrigan, S. Venkatesan, P.R.
Gifford, A. Holland, M.A. Fetcenko and S.K. Dhar), Presented at 13th Inter-
national Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS-13), Osaka, Japan (October 1996).
203. The Structure of W/C (0.15< γ < 0.8) Multilayers Annealed in Argon or Air (with J.
Gonzalez-Hernandez, B.S. Chao and D.D. Allred), Journal of X-Ray Science and
Technology 6, 1-31 (1996).
204. Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries Making Electric Vehicles Practical (with
R.C. Stempel), ibid.; Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Electric Vehicles,
Tokyo, Japan (February 1997).
205. Ovonic NiMH Battery Technology − Improved Energy and Performance (with M.
Fetcenko, J. Im, C. Fierro, B. Reichman, K. Young, B. Chao and S. Venkatesan),
Presented at the 14th International Seminar on Primary and Secondary Batteries, Ft.
Lauderdale, FL (March 1997).
206. Nickel Metal Hydride Technology for Consumer and Electric Vehicle Batteries − A
Review and Up-Date (with P.R. Gifford, S.K. Dhar, D.A. Corrigan, M.A. Fetcenko
and S. Venkatesan), Presented at the 65th Power Sources Symposium, Brighton,
England (April 1997).
207. New High Speed, Low Cost, Roll-to-Roll Antireflectivity Coating Technology (with T.
Ellison, B. Dotter and M. Izu), Proceedings of the 1997 Society for Vacuum Coaters,
New Orleans (April 14-17, 1997).
208. Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries for Electric Vehicles (with D. Corrigan, S.
Venkatesan, A. Holland, P. Gifford and S. Dhar), Presented at the 30th International
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 16 of 20


Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation (ISATA), Florence, Italy
(June 1997).
209. Development of a Small Scale Hydrogen Production Storage System for Hydrogen
Applications (with K. Sapru, N.T. Stetson, J. Yang, G. Fritz, M. Fairlie* and A.
Stuart* (*of SunFuel Energy Systems)), Presented at IECEC, Honolulu, HI (July 27-
August 1, 1997).
210. Comment on "Vacuum catastrophe: An elementary exposition of the cosmological
constant problem" (with H. Fritzsche), Am. J. Phys. 65, 927 (September 1997).
211. Effect of hydrogen dilution on the structure of amorphous silicon alloys (with D.V.
Tsu, B.S. Chao, S. Guha and J. Yang), Appl. Phys. Lett. 71 , 1317 (September 8,
1997).
212. Improved ųc-Si p-Layer and a-Si i-Layer Materials Using VHF Plasma Deposition
(with X. Deng, S.J. Jones, T. Liu and M. Izu), Presented at the 26th IEEE Photo-
voltaic Specialists Conference, Anaheim, CA (September/October 1997).
213. Amorphous Materials − The Key to New Devices, Presented at the 20th edition of
the International Semiconductor Conference (CAS '97) in Sinaia, Romania (October
1997).
214. Ovonic Phase Change Memory Making Possible New Optical and Electrical
Devices, Keynote address at the 9th Symposium on Phase Change Recording,
Numanzu-City, Japan (November 27-28, 1997).
215. Higher Power Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries for Electric and Hybrid
Vehicles (with D.A. Corrigan, S. Venkatesan, A. Holland, P.R. Gifford, M.A.
Fetcenko and S.K. Dhar), Presented at the 14th International Electric Vehicle
Symposium (EVS-14), Orlando, FL (December 1997).
216. Advanced Ovonic High-Power Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries for Hybrid Electric
Vehicle Applications (with I. Menjak, P.H. Gow, D.A. Corrigan, S. Venkatesan, S.K.
Dhar and R.C. Stempel), Presented at the 13th Annual Battery Conference on
Applications and Advances, Long Beach, CA (January 1998).
217. Advanced Materials for Next Generation NiMH Portable, HEV and EV Batteries
(With S.K. Dhar, M.A. Fetcenko, D.A. Corrigan, B. Reichman, K. Young, C. Fierro,
S. Venkatesan, P. Gifford and J. Koch), Presented at the 15th International Seminar
on Primary and Secondary Batteries, Ft. Lauderdale, FL (March 3, 1998).
218. Improved Hydride/Dehydride Process to Prepare Metal Powders for Ovonic
NiMH Battery Applications (with K.H. Young, M.A. Fetcenko, S. Tang and A. Ku),
Presented at PM2TEC98 Conference on Powder Metallurgy & Particulate
Materials, Las Vegas, NV (June 1998).
219. Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride Power for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (with
D. Corrigan, P. Gow, I. Menjak, S. Venkatesan, S. Dhar and R. Stempel), Pre-
sented at the 31st International Symposium on Automotive Technology and
Automation, Dusseldorf, Germany (June 1998).
220. High Power Ovonic NiMH Batteries for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (with D.
Corrigan, P. Gow, I. Menjak, S. Venkatesan, S. Dhar and R. Stempel), Presented at
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 17 of 20


the 15th International Electric Vehicle Symposium, Brussels, Belgium (October
1998).
221. Fundamentals and Implications of Amorphous and Disordered Materials, Presented
at the University of Toledo (October 22, 1998).
222. Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries: The Enabling Technology for Electric and Hybrid
Electric Vehicles (With R.C. Stempel, P.R. Gifford and D.A. Corrigan), IEEE
Spectrum (November 1998).
223. Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries The Enabling Technology for Electric and Hybrid
Vehicles, Presented at the 39th Battery Symposium, Japan (November 25-27,
1998).
224. Advancing Batteries (with R.C. Stempel, S.K. Dhar and P.R. Gifford), Electric &
Hybrid Vehicle Technology 98 (1998) p. 80.
225. Motts Room, in Reminiscences and Appreciations, edited by E.A. Davis (Taylor &
Francis Ltd, London, 1998) p. 282.
226. Nickel-Metal Hydride: Ready to Serve (with R.C. Stempel, P.R. Gifford and D.A.
Corrigan), IEEE Spectrum 35, 29 (1998).
227. Amorphous and Disordered Materials The Basis of New Industries, Presented at
Materials Research Society (MRS), Boston, MA (November 30 - December 4,
1998); Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 554, 399 (1999); Bulk Metallic Glasses, William
L. Johnson, Akihisa Inoue and C.T. Liu (Eds.).
228. Advanced Materials for 100+ Wh/kg NiMH Batteries (with M.A. Fetcenko, K. Young,
B. Reichman, C. Fierro, J. Koch, W. Mays, B. Sommers, A. Zallen, S.K. Dhar and
R. Young), Presented at the Sixteenth International Seminar on Primary and
Secondary Batteries, Ft. Lauderdale, FL (March 2, 1999).
229. Electric Cars and Scooters Powered by Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries (with
N. Karditsas, D.A. Corrigan and S.K. Dhar), Presented at the 3rd International
Symposium on Advanced Electromechanical Motion Systems, Patras, Greece (July
8-9, 1999).
230. The Story of Phase Change for Optical Storage, Balzers Materials 9, 6 (October
1999).
231. Innovation, Corporate Strategy and Business Growth − The Challenge and Promise
of the Hydrogen Economy, Keynote address at the Montreux Energy Roundtable,
Cambridge, England (November 8, 1999).
232. High Temperature Charge Acceptability Improvements in Ovonic Nickel Metal
Hydride Batteries (with S. Venkatesan, B. Aladjov, K. Fok, T. Hopper, B. Prasad, L.
Taylor, J. Strebe, M. Amo and S. Dhar), Proceedings of the 39th Power Sources
Conference, Cherry Hill, NJ (March 31, 2000) p. 278.
233. High Conductivity Negative Electrode Substrates for EV and HEV Ovonic NiMH
Batteries (with S. Venkatesan, B. Prasad, B. Aladjov, D. Corrigan and S. Dhar), ibid.
p. 263.
234. Metal Hydride Technologies for Fuel Cell Vehicles (with D.A. Corrigan, R.C. Young
and S.K. Dhar), Presented at the Commercializing Fuel Cell Vehicles 2000
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 18 of 20


Conference, Berlin, Germany (April 12-14, 2000).
235. Performance of Ovonic NiMH Batteries with New Generation of Positive Electrode
Active Materials (with S. Venkatesan, B. Aladjov, T. Hopper, K. Fok, J. Strebe, and
S. Dhar), Presented at the 197th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Toronto,
Canada (May 14-18, 2000).
236. New Developments in Optical Phase Change Memory (with W. Czubatyj),
Presented at the 5th International Symposium on Optical Storage (ISOS 2000),
Shanghai, China (May 22-26, 2000); SPIE Proc. Vol. 4085, p. 15 (2001).
237. The Road to Decarbonized Energy − Speeding towards a hydrogen economy and
the obstacles along the way, Book Review, Nature (August 3, 2000) p. 457.
238. Fuel Cells: Necessary But Not Sufficient, Keynote address at the Fuel Cell 2000
R&D, Philadelphia, PA (September 25-27, 2000).
239. Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries for ZEV-Range Hybrid Electric Vehicles (with D.
Corrigan, I. Menjak, B. Cleto and S. Dhar), Presented at the 17th International
Electric Vehicle Symposium, Montreal, Canada (October 2000).
240. Technologys Tortoise and Hare The sociological dynamics are now right for
the electric car to eclipse its rival, book review, Nature (November 16, 2000) p.
289.
241. Applications of Glasses, Amorphous, and Disordered Materials in P. Boolchand
(Ed.) Insulating and Semiconducting Glasses, Series on Directions in Condensed
Matter Physics, Vol. 17 (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000) p. 729.
242. Effect of Alloy Composition on the Structure of Zr Based Metal Alloys (with B.S.
Chao, R.C. Young, D.A. Pawlik, B. Huang, J.S. Im and *B.C. Chakoumakos),
Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium Vol. 575, 193 (2000)
<*Neutron Scattering Section, Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN 37831.>
243. Ovonic NiMH Batteries: The Enabling Technology for Heavy-Duty Electric &
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (with R.C. Stempel, S.K. Dhar, S. Venkatesan, D.
Corrigan, G. Fritz and N. Karditsas), Presented Society of Automotive Engineers
(2000).
244. Ovonics Memories, Presented at MINATEC 2001 The Second International
Meeting on Micro and Nanotechnologies, Grenoble (April 2-6, 2001).
245. The Basic Mechanisms Unique to Amorphous and Disordered Semiconductor
Devices, Keynote address at the 19th International Conference on Amorphous
and Microcrystalline Semiconductors, Nice, France (August 23-31, 2001).
246. Phase Change Optical Storage, Keynote speech given by the great father of
phase-change memory, Dr. Stanford R. Ovshinsky, E*PCOS01 European Sym-
posium on Phase Change Optical Storage, Santis, Switzerland (September 3-4,
2001).
247. The Hydrogen Economy, Keynote address at the Florida Educational Seminars,
Inc. Conference on Fuel Cells for Stationary, Automotive and Portable Appli-
cations, Fort Lauderdale, FL (November 12-14, 2001).
Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 19 of 20


248. Development of High Catalytic Activity Disordered Hydrogen-Storage Alloys for
Electrochemical Application in Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries (with M.A.
Fetcenko), Appl. Phys. A 72, 239 (2001).
249. Heterogeneity in Hydrogenated Silicon: Evidence for Intermediately Ordered
Chainlike Objects (With D. Tsu, B.S. Chao, S. Jones, J. Yang, S. Guha and R.
Tsu), Phys. Rev. B 63 (2001).
250. Solving Serious Societal Environmental Problems Through New Approaches to
Catalysis, Keynote address at Symposium on Catalysis-Dependent New
Commercial/Near Commercial Technologies for Improving Air Quality, 223rd
American Chemical Society National Meeting, Orlando, FL (April 7-11, 2002).
251. Roadmap for the Future of Phase Change, Keynote address, E*PCOS03
European Symposium on Phase Change Optical Storage, Lake Lugano,
Switzerland (March 10-11, 2003).
252. Transformative New Science and Technology Affecting Energy and Information,
The Twin Pillars of our Global Society, Armstrong Lecture, Newcastle University,
U.K. (October 28, 2003).
253. Optical Cognitive Information Processing A New Field, Keynote presentation at
the International Symposium on Optical Memory 03, Nara, Japan (November 4,
2003).
254. New Science and Technology - The Basis of the Hydrogen Economy, Keynote
address at the 2003 Materials Research Society (MRS) Fall Symposium on
Materials and Technologies for a Hydrogen Economy, Boston, MA (December 1-
5, 2003).
255. Phase Change Data Storage, Tutorial at the 2003 MRS Fall Symposium on Phase
Change and Nonmagnetic Storage Materials for Data Storage, Boston, MA
(December 1-5, 2003).
256. Innovation Providing New Multiple Functions in Phase Change Materials to Achieve
Cognitive Computing, Invited talk at the 2003 MRS Fall Symposium on Phase
Change and Nonmagnetic Storage Materials for Data Storage, Boston, MA
(December 1-5, 2003).
257. Hydrogen-Fueled Hybrid: Pathway to a Hydrogen Economy Webster, R. Stempel (ECD Ovonics), R.C. Young, Y. Li, V. Myasnikov (Texaco
Ovonic Hydrogen Systems), B. Falls and A. Lutz (Quantum Technologies)], to be
presented at the SAE 2004 World Congress, Detroit, Michigan (March 8-11, 2004).
258. Neurosynaptic Plasticity and the Ovonic Cognitive Computer, Keynote address,
E*PCOS04 Third European Symposium on Phase Change and Ovonic Science
(name of organization changed at E*PCOS03 in honor of the work of S.R.
Ovshinsky), Liechtenstein (September 2004).

Stanford R. Ovshinsky Publications Page 20 of 20


Neurophysiology and Neuropsychiatry

1. Combined Cortical and Cerebellar Stimulation (with F. Morin and G. Lamarche),
Department of Anatomy, Wayne State University, College of Medicine, Anat. Rec
127, 436 (1957).
2. A Concept of Schizophrenia, J. Nerv. and Ment. Disease Vol. 125, 578 (1957).
3. Cortical and Cerebellar Stimulation in Walking Cats, Presented before the Detroit
Physiological Society (December 19, 1957).
4. Functional Aspects of Cerebellar Afferent Systems and of Cortico-Cerebellar
Relationships (with F. Morin and G. Lamarche), Laval Médical Vol. 26, 633 (1958).
5. Suggested Biochemical Factors in Schizophrenia, J. Nerv. and Ment. Disease 127,
180 (1958).
6. The Physical Base of Intelligence − Model Studies, Presented at the Detroit
Physiological Society (December 17, 1959).
7. The Reticulo-Endothelial Systems and its Possible Significance in Schizophrenia, J.
Neuropsychiatry 3, 38 (1961).

Books

Disordered Materials: Science and Technology − Selected Papers by S.R. Ovshinsky,
edited by David Adler (Amorphous Institute Press, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1982).
Disordered Materials: Science and Technology − Selected Papers by Stanford R.
Ovshinsky, 2nd Edition, edited by David Adler, Brian B. Schwartz and Marvin Silver,
Institute for Amorphous Studies Series (Plenum Press, New York, 1991).

Books Edited

Physics of Disordered Materials, edited by David Adler, Hellmut Fritzsche and Stanford R.
Ovshinsky, Institute for Amorphous Studies Series (Plenum Press, New York, 1985).
Disordered Semiconductors, edited by Marc A. Kastner, Gordon A. Thomas and Stanford
R. Ovshinsky, Institute for Amorphous Studies Series (Plenum Press, New York, 1987).
Disorder and Order in the Solid State − Concept and Devices, edited by Roger W. Pryor,
Brian B. Schwartz and Stanford R. Ovshinsky, Institute for Amorphous Studies Series
(Plenum Press, New York, 1988).




STANFORD R. OVSHINSKY (ovshinsky@ovonic.com )
Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.
2956 Waterview Rochester Hills MI 48309 U.S.A.
T 248.293.0440 F 248.844.1922 www.ovonic.com


Aug. 2004
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bananas Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Thu Aug-06-09 12:50 AM
Response to Reply #30
31. It wasn't much of an answer to ProgressiveProfessor
ProgressiveProfessor wrote:
"18. Its not hard to find the claims...confirmation is serious lacking"

A "fact sheet" that no longer exists is supposed to convince him?
I don't think so...




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kristopher Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Thu Aug-06-09 04:17 AM
Response to Reply #31
32. That's true, but
fact is that focusing on a single, poorly written footnote doesn't discredit the document. Although it is gray lit and notably dated, it looks reasonably solid.


PP isn't interested in being convinced in any case.
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bananas Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 03:53 PM
Response to Reply #14
23. 2009 Argonne National Labs full well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas
Wikipedia has a summary table and a link to the pdf.
I was going to reformat the table, but I'm not going to waste my time.
Knock yourself out: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plug-in_hybrid#Fuel_effici...

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory adapted their GREET model to conduct a full well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for several scenarios, considering different on-board fuels and different sources of electricity generation for recharging the vehicle batteries. Three U.S.regions were selected for the analysis, California, New York, and Illinois, as these regions include major metropolitan areas with significant vaiations in their energy generation mixes. The full cycle analysis results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively <113> This 2009 study showed a wide spread of energy balance and GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes. The following table summarizes the main results:<113>

PHEV well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions
for an all-electric range between 10 mi and 40 mi with different on-board fuels.(1)
(as a % relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that uses gasoline)
Analysis Reformulated gasoline
and low sulfur diesel E85 fuel from
corn and switchgrass Fuel cell
hydrogen
Energy use reduction
4060%

7090%

more than 90%
GHG emissions reduction(2)
3060%

4080%

10100%
Source: Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory (2009). See Table 1.<113> Notes: (1) Simulations for year 2020
with PHEV model year 2015. (2) No direct or indirect land use changes included in the WTW analysis for bio-mass fuel feedstocks.<114><115>

The Argonne study found that PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles. More petroleum energy savings and also more GHG emissions reductions were realized as the all-electric range increased, except when electricity used to recharged was dominated by coal or oil-fired power generation. As expected, electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the all-electric range increased. The study also concluded that plug-in vehicles that employ biomass-based fuels (biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular hybrids if power generation is dominated by fossil sources.<113>

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JohnWxy Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 05:04 PM
Response to Reply #9
27. you might find the GAO report on Plug-in hybrids interesting, link:
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excess_3 Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 03:42 AM
Response to Reply #5
12. energy is not the issue. the important thing is too cut ...
the connection between the middle
east and the US economy.
and electric cars do exactly that
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ProgressiveProfessor Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 10:59 AM
Response to Reply #12
15. I agree that diminish our ME oil dependecy is important, but its not clear the EV is readly for all
markets. Also what will be used to power the generators.

While we build our wind, solar etc, but for at least the next generation we will be using coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear power as our mainstays, especially in the northeast and the big cities. Those energy systems need to be accounted for when looking at EVs.
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kristopher Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 02:01 PM
Response to Reply #15
17. They are being "accounted for".
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JohnWxy Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 04:43 PM
Response to Reply #3
26. HOw many plug-in hybrids do you think are being driven on the road right now?
There are a couple dozen or so right now. So the amount of gasoline consumption reduction is nearly zero percent when compared to the 140 billion gallons of gasoline we consume annually. Try to understand, forecasts of future gasoline reductions means they haven't actually happened yet. That's why they call them FORECASTS. It will take about 20 years to get enough Plug-in Hybrids on the road to make a significant (let's say about 20% - 25%) impact on gasoline consumption. see: http://knol.google.com/k/jeffery-greenblatt/clean-energ...

Here is a good rule: You can replace the gasoline faster than you can replace the cars that burn the gasoline.

NOw regards the 'suppport' given to ethanol. In 2008 we produced about 9.2 Billion gallons of ethanol. The Government gives an Excise tax credit to blenders of gasoline of $.51 for every gallon of ethanol they blend with gasoline. This is a cost reduction to the blenders which they pass along to gasoline retailers in a lower price for blended gasoline. NOtice that Ethanol85 (85%) ethanol is about 21% lower than gasoline ($2.05 for Ethanol vs $2.61 for gasoline). So you see the price spread for ethanol is GREATER THAN the Excise tax credit. So people are saving more on ethanol than the excise tax credit is costing in reduced revenues!

BUT THAT'S NOT ALL!! By meeting some of the demand for gasoline this brings down the price of gasoline for ALL gasoline purchased. According to Francisco Blanch, Chief Commodities Strategist for Merrill Lynch, ethanol is bringing down the price of gas about 15%.

Now, in 2008 assuming an average price of gas of $3.30 per gallon (actually, I didn't assume it, see Energy Information Administration) we spent about $456,258,113,389 (that's $456 Billion dollars) on gasoline. But without ethanol in the market there would have been demand for 9.2 billion more gallons of gas, which means we would have spent an additional $68 BILLION dollars for gas in 2008 if ethanol had not been there to meet that demand.

So the excise tax credit of $.51 per gallon of ethanol blended is more than met by the price spread between ethanol and gasoline (ethanol is cheaper than gas by an amount that is MORE THAN the excise tax credit)!

Plus, we saved an additional $68 Billion on gas thanks to ethanol.

So to review: remember now, the estimates for gasoline reduction for plug-in hybrids are ESTIMATES. they hopefully will be achieved one day, but it will be about 20 years before we see significant reductions in gasoline consumption due to the use of Plug-in hybrids. To stimulate the sale of plug-ins teh gonvernment will be giving people tax credits for buying a plug-in (when they come along) just as they do for regualr hybrids. I don't know what the cost of this will come to but it will be significant.


I hope i explained this adequately for you. Remember ACTUAL reductions of gasoline consumption are NOT THE SAME AS ESTIMATED REDUCTIONS WHICH ARE PREDICTED TO COME SOMETIME IN THE FUTURE. (these estimates ARE NOT ACTUAL REDUCTIONS OF GASOLINE OCCURRING RIGHT NOW).

See???


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Massacure Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Tue Aug-04-09 10:49 PM
Response to Original message
4. I love this quote:
"In fact, industry observers question if miles-per-gallon is a useful measure of efficiency for vehicles that run entirely or mostly on electricity."

I hate it when people claim plug-in hybrids get 120 mpg or more. It's like saying I can average 300 miles per gallon from New York to San Francisco by diving the first 500 miles and pushing the dumb thing the other 2,500 miles.
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NYC_SKP Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 12:24 AM
Response to Reply #4
6. More like "driving 500 and being towed the other 2500"...
Since energy is still coming from someplace.

I agree, the claims are bogus and misleading.
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kristopher Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 12:43 AM
Response to Reply #4
8. That's a perfectly acceptable way to discuss the vehicles.
I agree that when hybrids are billed as getting X miles per gallon it is giving different information that has a different purpose, but, the public is used to a certain metric so if relevant information is still being conveyed there is utility in the use of MGP.

In this case the metric helps highlight the movement towards the goal of zero petroleum usage. If you want to paint it as an attempt to deceive, I suppose that is one perspective, but your example is actually more misleading than what you allege for the MPG claims. The entire effort to move our personal transportation sector to EVs is related to various negatives about petroleum. You ignore the very real relationship between the goal of infrastructure change and the way the public will generally use the information in MPG style data.

There is, of course, a need to educate people on the proper units of measurement for electric motors and electric drive, but at this point when comparison shopping among the limited number of EVs isn't the central concern, that complaint is pretty much an exercise in nit picking.
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wtmusic Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 02:51 PM
Response to Reply #8
22. self delete
Edited on Wed Aug-05-09 02:53 PM by wtmusic
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kristopher Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 01:20 AM
Response to Original message
11. Since google is referenced in the OP
http://www.google.org/recharge/experiment /

This page covers their experience with hybrids.
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Finishline42 Donating Member (167 posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 10:13 AM
Response to Reply #11
13. I had a problem with the link to the Google page
I had to use this:

http://www.google.org/recharge /

From the page:

We've had our RechargeIT plug-ins on the road for about a year now, collecting data when driven by Google employees in our free car-share program. But we wanted to see how they would perform in a controlled test. The results of our seven-week driving experiment are in and the plug-ins did great, getting as much as 93 MPG average across all trips, and 115 MPG for city trips! See the full results to explore detailed data from the experiment. (And check back often as we'll be posting even more comprehensive data from our test over the next few weeks.)
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kristopher Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 02:40 PM
Response to Reply #13
20. Thanks.
A bit of a different picture than that painted in the OP, eh?

http://www.google.org/recharge/
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Finishline42 Donating Member (167 posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 04:06 PM
Response to Reply #20
25. Have you gotten a chance to look at the CM study?
Their study is not real world, it's a simulation based on a 2004 TOYODA PRIUS!!!! From the study >

We use the US Department of Energy Powertrain System
Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) vehicle physics simulator (Argonne
National Laboratory, 2008) to model and examine design
tradeoffs between battery capacity and PHEV benefits. PSAT is a
forward-looking vehicle simulator, meaning it models the driver
as a control system that attempts to follow a target driving cycle
of defined vehicle speed at every time step by actuating the
accelerator and brake pedals. For the PHEV simulations in our
study, we used the model year 2004 Toyota Prius as a baseline for
engine, body and powertrain configurations.

http://www.cmu.edu/me/ddl/publications/2009-EP-Shiau-Sa...

I went to the study to see who financed the research. The results don't mean much unless you can see what constraints were placed on the study - how much research is designed to fail - satisfying the agenda of the Corp putting up the $$$$.

The study actually pushes a 7 mile all electric range as the most effective, based on battery cost and weight. Must have been financed by Exxon...
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kristopher Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Aug-05-09 06:59 PM
Response to Reply #25
28. I'm downloading it now (dial up)
Edited on Wed Aug-05-09 07:00 PM by kristopher
The Nissan Leaf is touting a 100mile all electric range. If it delivers, that will reduce petroleum consumption to near 0 for a large number of drivers.

All of this crap being pushed by advocates of ethanol and hydrogen is really moot. The decision on which drive system will replace petroleum in our personal transport fleet has already been made.

Look at the Greenblat's google page and note the pace of market penetration. The end date of their study is 2030 and they predict battery drive will comprise 91% of new vehicles sold and 40 something percent of the entire fleet. At that pace the entire fleet will, for all intent and purposes, be electric by about 2035.

I think it will happen more much quickly. There is a battery in the pipeline that is a total game changer. I haven't checked lately but about 4 months ago they were well started on the path to commercialization.

Nature Nanotechnology 3, 31 - 35 (2008)
Published online: 16 December 2007 | doi:10.1038/nnano.2007.411
Subject Category: Electronic properties and devices
High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires
Candace K. Chan1, Hailin Peng2, Gao Liu3, Kevin McIlwrath4, Xiao Feng Zhang4, Robert A. Huggins2 & Yi Cui2

Abstract
There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium batteries with higher energy capacity and longer cycle life for
applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and implantable medical devices1. Silicon is an attractive
anode material for lithium batteries because it has a low discharge potential and the highest known theoretical charge
capacity (4,200 mAh g-1; ref. 2). Although this is more than ten times higher than existing graphite anodes and much
larger than various nitride and oxide materials3, 4, silicon anodes have limited applications5 because silicon's volume
changes by 400% upon insertion and extraction of lithium which results in pulverization and capacity fading2. Here, we
show that silicon nanowire battery electrodes circumvent these issues as they can accommodate large strain without
pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, and display short lithium insertion distances. We
achieved the theoretical charge capacity for silicon anodes and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this
maximum, with little fading during cycling.




Previous studies in which Si bulk films and micrometre-sized particles were used as electrodes in lithium batteries have shown capacity fading and short
battery lifetime due to pulverization and loss of electrical contact between the active material and the current collector (Fig. 1a). The use of sub-micrometre
pillars6 and micro- and nanocomposite anodes5, 7, 8, 9 led to only limited improvement. Electrodes made of amorphous Si thin films have a stable capacity
over many cycles5, 8, but have insufficient material for a viable battery. The concept of using one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials has been demonstrated
with carbon10, Co 3O4 (refs 11, 12), SnO2 (ref. 13) and TiO2 (ref. 14) anodes, and has shown improvements compared to bulk materials. A schematic of our Si
nanowire (NW) anode configuration is shown in Fig. 1b. Nanowires are grown directly on the metallic current collector substrate. This geometry has several
advantages and has led to improvements in rate capabilities in metal oxide cathode materials15. First, the small NW diameter allows for better
accommodation of the large volume changes without the initiation of fracture that can occur in bulk or micron-sized materials (Fig. 1a). This is consistent
with previous studies that have suggested a materials-dependent terminal particle size below which particles do not fracture further16, 17. Second, each Si NW
is electrically connected to the metallic current collector so that all the nanowires contribute to the capacity. Third, the Si NWs have direct 1D electronic
pathways allowing for efficient charge transport. In electrode microstructures based on particles, electronic charge carriers must move through small
interparticle contact areas. In addition, as every NW is connected to the current-carrying electrode, the need for binders or conducting additives, which add
extra weight, is eliminated. Furthermore, our Si NW battery electrode can be easily realized using the vapourliquidsolid (VLS) or vapoursolid (VS)
template-free growth methods18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 to produce NWs directly onto stainless steel current collectors (see Methods).


Methods
Si NWs were synthesized using the VLS process on stainless steel substrates using Au catalyst. The electrochemical properties were evaluated under an argon
atmosphere by both cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling in a three-electrode configuration, with the Si NWs on the stainless steel substrate as the
working electrode and Li foil as both reference and counter-electrodes. No binders or conducting carbon were used. The charge capacity referred to here is the
total charge inserted into the Si NW, per mass unit, during Li insertion, whereas the discharge capacity is the total charge removed during Li extraction. For
electrical characterization, single Si NW devices were contacted with metal electrodes by electron-beam lithography or focused-ion beam deposition."


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