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Reply #153: Black voter disenfranchisement [View All]

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Brewman_Jax Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Wed Sep-17-08 12:11 PM
Response to Original message
153. Black voter disenfranchisement
Edited on Wed Sep-17-08 12:16 PM by Lurking_Argyle
"Direct" disenfranchisement refers to actions that explicitly prevent people from voting or having their votes counted, as opposed to "indirect" techniques, which attempt to prevent people's votes from having an impact on political outcomes (e.g., gerrymandering, ballot box stuffing, stripping elected officials of their powers).

The 15th Amendment prohibited explicit disenfranchisement on the basis of race or prior enslavement. So Southern states devised an array of alternative techniques designed to disenfranchise blacks and, to a lesser extent, poor whites. There were three broad, overlapping phases of the disenfranchisement process. From 1868-1888, the principal techniques of disenfranchisement were illegal, based on violence and massive fraud in the vote counting process. Starting in 1877, when Georgia passed the cumulative poll tax, states implemented statutory methods of disenfranchisement. From 1888-1908, states entrenched these legal techniques in their constitutions. Here we explore the principal means of direct disenfranchisement, and the attempts to use Federal law to prevent disenfranchisement, through 1965, when the Voting Rights Act was passed. For the most part, until the advent of the Civil Rights Movement in the 20th c., the Supreme Court acquiesced in the methods used to disenfranchise blacks by gutting the Federal laws enacted to protect blacks. Whenever it resisted, the Southern states followed the motto "if at first you don't succeed. . . ."

The techniques for disenfranchisement included: violence, fraud, poll taxes, literacy tests, restrictive and arbitrary registraton practices, the white primary, and gerrymandering.


Violence was a principal means of direct disenfranchisement in the South before Redemption. In 1873, a band of whites murdered over 100 blacks who were assembled to defend Republican officeholders against attack in Colfax, Louisiana. Federal prosecutors indicted 3 of them under the Enforcement Act of 1870, which prohibited individuals from conspiring "to injure, oppress, threaten, or intimidate any citizen with intent to prevent or hinder his free exercise and enjoyment of any right or privilege granted or secured to him by the constitution or laws of the United States." The Supreme Court dismissed the indictments in U.S. v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542 (1875), faulting them for failure to identify a right guaranteed by the federal government that had been violated in the slaughter: (1) Conceding that the right to assemble for the purpose of petitioning Congress or vote in federal elections was derived from the federal government, the Court argued that the right to participate in state politics was derived from the states, so individuals could look only to the states for protection of this right. (2) Conceding an exception, that the U.S. Constitution grants individuals the right against racial discrimination in the exercise of their rights to participate in state politics, the Court faulted the indictment for failure to charge a racial motivation for interference in the victims' right to vote (even though the racial motive was obvious). (3) In any event, the Court ruled that this federal right against racial discrimination was enforceable against the states only, not against individuals. (4) Other rights violated in the slaughter, such as the rights to life and against false imprisonment, were not derived from the federal government, so individuals had to resort to the states for protection of these rights. Cruikshank "rendered national prosecution of crimes against blacks virtually impossible, and gave a green light to acts of terror where local officials either could not or would not enforce the law." (Eric Foner, Reconstruction, 1989, 531).


Electoral fraud by ballot box stuffing, throwing out non-Democratic votes, or counting them for the Democrats even when cast for the opposition, was the norm in the Southern states before legal means of disenfranchisement were entrenched. Between 1880 and 1901, Congress seated 26 Republican or Populist congressional candidates who had been "defeated" through electoral fraud. (Kousser, Shaping of Southern Politics, 263). In a key test of federal power to prohibit fraud in state elections, prosecutors brought indictments, under the Enforcement Act of 1870, against two inspectors of elections in Kentucky, for their refusal to receive and count the vote of a black elector in a city election. The Supreme Court dismissed the indictments in U.S. v. Reese, 92 U.S. 214 (1875). It eviscerated the Enforcement Act by throwing out its provisions for punishing election officials for depriving citizens of their voting rights, on the ground that they exceeded Congress' power to regulate elections. (The provisions stated that officials shall be punished for failure to count the votes of eligible electors, when the 15th Amendment granted Congress only the power to punish officials for depriving electors of the right to vote on account of race.) Although electoral fraud remained common in the South, it brought its practitioners under the glare of unfavorable publicity. This motivated a turn to legal means of disenfranchisement.

Poll Taxes

Georgia initiated the poll tax in 1871, and made it cumulative in 1877 (requiring citizens to pay all back taxes before being permitted to vote). Every former confederate state followed its lead by 1904. Although these taxes of $1-$2 per year may seem small, it was beyond the reach of many poor black and white sharecroppers, who rarely dealt in cash. The Georgia poll tax probably reduced overall turnout by 16-28%, and black turnout in half (Kousser, The Shaping of Southern Politics, 67-8). The purpose of the tax was plainly to disenfranchise, not to collect revenue, since no state brought prosecutions against any individual for failure to pay the tax. In 1937, a white man brought suit against Georgia's poll tax, alleging violations of the 14th Amendment and the 19th Amendment (prohibiting discrimination in the right to vote on account of sex). (Women not registered to vote were exempt from the poll tax). The Supreme Court rejected his arguments in Breedlove v. Suttles, 302 U.S. 277 (1937), disingenuously claiming that it was unrelated to any attempt to disenfranchise. It held that the poll tax was a legitimate device for raising revenue, and that the 19th Amendment regulated voting, not taxation. Although the 24th Amendment prohibited the poll tax in Federal elections, even that wasn't enough to prevent a last-ditch attempt to burden the right to vote with a tax. In Harman v. Forssenius, 380 U.S. 528 (1965), the Court struck down a Virginia law requiring federal electors to file burdensome paperwork if they did not pay a poll tax. It took the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to prohibit the poll tax in state elections. The Supreme Court independently declared poll taxes an unconstitutional violation of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment in Harper v. Virginia State Bd. of Elections, 383 U.S. 663 (1966).

Literacy Tests

The first implicit literacy test was South Carolina's notorious "eight-box" ballot, adopted in 1882. Voters had to put ballots for separate offices in separate boxes. A ballot for the governor's race put in the box for the senate seat would be thrown out. The order of the boxes was continuously shuffled, so that literate people could not assist illiterate voters by arranging their ballots in the proper order. The adoption of the secret ballot constituted another implicit literacy test, since it prohibited anyone from assisting an illiterate voter in casting his vote. In 1890, Southern states began to adopt explicit literacy tests to disenfranchise voters. This had a large differential racial impact, since 40-60% of blacks were illiterate, compared to 8-18% of whites. Poor, illiterate whites opposed the tests, realizing that they too would be disenfranchised. To placate them, Southern states adopted an "understanding clause" or a "grandfather clause," which entitled voters who could not pass the literacy test to vote, provided they could demonstrate their understanding of the meaning of a passage in the constitution to the satisfaction of the registrar, or were or were descended from someone eligible to vote in 1867, the year before blacks attained the franchise. Discriminatory administration ensured that blacks would not be eligible to vote through the understanding clause. However, illiterate whites also felt the impact of the literacy tests, since some of the understanding and grandfather clauses expired after a few years, and some whites were reluctant to expose their illiteracy by publicly resorting to them. The Supreme Court struck down Oklahoma's grandfather clause in Guinn v. U.S., 238 U.S. 347 (1915), as an obvious ruse to evade the 15th Amendment. Oklahoma responded to Guinn by passing a law requiring all those who had not voted in the 1914 election (when the grandfather clause was still in effect) to register to vote within 11 days, or forever forfeit the franchise. The Supreme Court invalidated this arrangement in Lane v. Wilson, 307 U.S. 268 (1939). None of this touched the literacy tests, only the white exemption from it. Not until 1949 in Davis v. Schnell, 81 F. Supp. 872, did a Federal court strike down discriminatory administration of a literacy test. In Lassiter v. Northampton Cty. Bd. of Ed., 360 U.S. 45 (1959), the Court upheld the Constitutionality of literacy tests, notwithstanding their differential racial impact, provided states were willing to have their impact fall on illiterate whites as well. Congress abolished literacy tests in the South with the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and nationwide in 1970.

Restrictive and Arbitrary Registraton Practices

Southern states made registration difficult, by requiring frequent re-registration, long terms of residence in a district, registration at inconvenient times (e.g., planting season), provision of information unavailable to many blacks (e.g. street addresses, when black neighborhoods lacked street names and numbers), and so forth. When blacks managed to qualify for the vote even under these measures, registrars would use their discretion to deny them the vote anyway. Alabama's constitution of 1901 was explicitly designed to disenfranchise blacks by such restrictive and fraudulent means. Despite this, Jackson Giles, a black janitor, qualified for the vote under Alabama's constitution. He brought suit against Alabama on behalf of himself and 75,000 similarly qualified blacks who had been arbitrarily denied the right to register. The Supreme Court rejected his claim in Giles v. Harris, 189 U.S. 475 (1903). In the most disingenuous reasoning since Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896) (rejecting a challenge to state-mandated racial segregation of railroad cars, on the ground that blacks' claims that segregation was intended to relegate them to inferior status was a figment of their imaginations), Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes put Giles in a catch-22: if the Alabama constitution did indeed violate the 15th Amendment guarantee against racial discrimination in voting, then it is void and Giles cannot be legally registered to vote under it. But if it did not, then Giles' rights were not violated. But, in the face of Giles' evidence of fraud, the Court cannot assume that the constitution is valid and thereby order his registration in accordance with its provisions. Holmes also held that Federal courts had no jurisdication over state electoral practices, and no power to enforce their judgements against states. Undaunted, Giles filed suit for damages against the registrars in state court, and also petitioned the court to order the registrars to register him. The state court dismissed his complaints and the Alabama Supreme Court affirmed, offering another catch-22: if Alabama's voting laws violated the 14th and 15th Amendments as Giles alleged, then the registrars had no valid laws under which they could register him. But if the laws were valid, then the registrars enjoyed immunity from damages for the ways they interpreted them. The Supreme Court affirmed this decision in Giles v. Teasley, 193 U.S. 146 (1904).

The White Primary

Disenfranchisement brought about one-party rule in the Southern states. This meant that the Democratic nominee for any office was assured of victory in the general election, shifting the real electoral contest to the party primary. This fact provided yet another opportunity to disenfranchise blacks. Texas passed a law forbidding blacks from participating in Democratic primary elections. The Supreme Court struck down this law as a plain violation of the 14th and 15th Amendments in Nixon v. Herndon, 273 U.S. 536 (1927). So Texas passed another law providing for each party's state executive committee to determine who could vote in its primaries. Accordingly, the Texas Democratic Party Executive Committee resolved to permit only white Democrats to participate in its primary. The idea was that, as a private association, the party executive committee was not subject to the 14th and 15th Amendments, which applied only to the states. The Supreme Court rejected this reasoning in Nixon v. Condon, 286 U.S. 73 (1932), holding that the Texas Democratic Party Executive Committee got its power to determine party membership from the state of Texas, and so acted as state officials. The State Democratic Convention promptly met and passed a resolution limiting party membership to whites. This was enough to satisfy the Supreme Court that only private parties, not the state, were involved in determining primary electors (despite the fact that the state required and regulated primaries). It therefore upheld the exclusion of blacks from the Texas Democratic primary in Grovey v. Townsend, 295 U.S. 45 (1935). However, in U.S. v. Classic, 313 U.S. 299, a case involving electoral fraud in a primary election, the Supreme Court acknowledged that primary elections were such an integral part of the selection of government officeholders that federal laws guaranteeing the right to vote applied to them. The conflict between Grovey and Classic was resolved in Smith v. Allwright, 321 U.S. 649 (1944), which found that primary elections were so pervasively regulated by the state that, in doing their part to run primaries, political parties were state actors and thus subject to the 14th and 15th Amendments. Texas Democrats evaded this ruling by arrangement with the all-white Jaybird Democratic Association (a leadership caucus within the party), which held elections unregulated by the state. The winner of the Jaybird Party election would enter the Democratic party primary, and the Democratic party would put up no opposition, thus ensuring victory to the Jaybird Party candidate. The Supreme Court saw through this ruse in Terry v. Adams, 345 U.S. 461 (1953), finally putting an end to the white primary after 9 years of acquiescence and 26 years of litigation.


Gerrymandering is a term that describes the deliberate rearrangement of the boundaries of voting districts to influence the outcome of elections. The original gerrymander was created in 1812 by, and named for, Massachusetts governor Elbridge Gerry, who crafted a district for political purposes that looked like a salamander. Voting districts have been drawn to dilute black voting strength or disenfranchise black voters altogether. In the case of Gomillion vs. Lightfoot (1960) - Supreme Court rules that drawing of election districts so blacks constitute a minority in all districts violates the 15th Amendment.

The history of black disenfranchisement demonstrates that it was a product not simply of the actions of Southern states and individuals, but of a failure to uphold and exercise federal power. Congress failed to fully exercise its powers under the 14th amendment (for example, it never reduced Southern states' congressional representation in proportion to its illegal disenfranchisement, as it was authorized to do). The Supreme Court actively undermined federal executive powers to protect black voting rights, refused to acknowledge racial discrimination even when it was obvious, and acquiesced in blatant constitutional violations by resorting to specious reasoning. Although it slowly came around in some cases, historian Eric Foner's judgment, that reconstruction is "America's unfinished revolution" remains true to this day.

Writer's Note: Some of the Supreme Court's most egregious decisions in regards to race and civil rights are highlighted above. They highlight the racial caste system in that the law even interpreted to not extend all civil and legal rights to black people simply because they were black. Just because poor whites were affected in no way means they suffered as severely as black people. They weren't subjected to violence for voting nor were their civil rights endangered.
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  - Anti-racist allies  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-09-07 06:51 PM   #96 
  - The Scottsboro Boys Trials  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-12-07 04:07 PM   #98 
  - The 1968 Kerner Report  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-14-07 06:23 AM   #99 
  - The Catholic Church and Slavery  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-18-07 04:18 PM   #100 
  - The Negro Motorist Green Book  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-27-07 04:58 PM   #102 
  - Historically Black Colleges and Universities  Lurking_Argyle   Aug-03-07 04:33 PM   #105 
  - Adding to the list  Brewman_Jax   Nov-13-11 06:03 PM   #236 
  - Labor firsts  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-06-07 04:08 PM   #106 
  - School desegregation, Southern Manifesto, and Massive Resistance  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-11-07 04:32 PM   #107 
  - The 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion, aka "The Triple Nickles"  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-05-07 10:33 AM   #108 
  - Haitian troops that fought for the colonies in the American Revolution  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-11-07 04:05 PM   #109 
  - Some recent naval history firsts and facts  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-26-07 04:53 PM   #110 
  - african american female poets  noiretblu   Nov-26-07 05:59 PM   #112 
  - Oh dang I didn't know Gwendolyn Brooks died  Chovexani   Jan-02-08 04:54 PM   #114 
  - Willie O'Ree (1935- ), first black NHL player  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-14-08 11:42 AM   #115 
  - Voter Intimidation 1876 Style  NOLALady   Jan-21-08 04:50 PM   #116 
  - The US Constitution was based on Iroquois Confederation's Constitution  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-22-08 07:37 AM   #117 
  - Susie King Taylor (1848-1912) teacher and nurse  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-28-08 10:57 AM   #118 
  - "The Negro had no rights which the white man was bound to respect..." Roger Taney, Chief Justice  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-01-08 10:05 AM   #119 
  - My wife and I toured Taney's house ...  kwassa   Feb-05-08 02:33 PM   #120 
  - Noted all black Army units of World War II  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-20-08 07:36 AM   #121 
  - 366th Infantry Regiment  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-21-08 08:31 AM   #122 
  - 320th Anti-Aircraft Barrage Balloon Battalion  Brewman_Jax   Jun-09-09 10:19 AM   #172 
  - Eugenics, the racial purity laws, and the "one-drop" rule  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-29-08 02:24 PM   #123 
  - Hypodescent is the term  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-13-08 12:27 PM   #159 
  - Racial classifications  Brewman_Jax   Jun-18-09 10:56 AM   #174 
  - can't say enough  Two Americas   Mar-14-08 01:08 AM   #124 
  - I'm glad that you find it of value  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-14-08 12:53 PM   #125 
     - we love you lurk.  psychmommy   Mar-16-08 10:25 AM   #126 
  - Brownsville incident of 1906  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-24-08 03:00 PM   #127 
  - Houston shootout of 1917  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-25-08 08:40 AM   #129 
  - Dr. Charles Drew--the facts  Lurking_Argyle   Apr-17-08 10:11 AM   #132 
  - Bacon's Rebellion (1675-1676) and the beginning of the racial caste system  Lurking_Argyle   Apr-17-08 01:37 PM   #133 
  - The Orangeburg Massacre  Lurking_Argyle   Apr-21-08 10:47 AM   #134 
  - COINTELPRO  Lurking_Argyle   Jun-17-08 09:59 AM   #135 
  - Affirmative Action and its opponents  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-03-08 02:27 PM   #137 
  - Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke (1978)  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-08-08 10:05 AM   #138 
  - City of Richmond, VA vs. J. A. Croson Co. (1989)  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-08-08 01:28 PM   #139 
  - Gratz vs. Bollinger (2003) and Grutter vs. Bollinger (2003)  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-28-08 03:12 PM   #143 
  - Ricci vs. DeStefano (2009)  Brewman_Jax   Jun-30-09 10:31 AM   #176 
  - State-level anti-affirmative action propositions and initiatives  Brewman_Jax   Jul-21-09 02:13 PM   #181 
  - One thing that escapes notice  Brewman_Jax   Jan-21-10 09:12 AM   #206 
  - L. Douglas Wilder (1931- ), 1st black state governor  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-08-08 01:50 PM   #140 
  - Will Robinson (1911-2008)  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-18-08 12:32 PM   #141 
  - Jackie Ormes (1911-1985), 1st black woman cartoonist  Lurking_Argyle   Aug-04-08 01:58 PM   #144 
  - List of black Academy Award (Oscar) winners  Lurking_Argyle   Aug-11-08 10:04 AM   #146 
  - Stephanie Tubbs-Jones (1949-2008)  Lurking_Argyle   Aug-21-08 07:56 AM   #148 
  - List of famous black Americans  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-11-08 03:22 PM   #149 
  - Donyale Luna (1945-1979), first black supermodel  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-12-08 08:44 AM   #150 
  - Ernie Davis (1939-1963), first black Heisman Trophy winner  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-15-08 09:54 AM   #151 
  - Service academy firsts  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-16-08 08:32 AM   #152 
  - Black voter disenfranchisement  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-17-08 12:11 PM   #153 
  - Landmark Supreme Court Decisions  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-17-08 12:19 PM   #154 
  - The combined court cases  Brewman_Jax   Mar-26-10 11:05 AM   #217 
  - A Short History of Haiti  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-23-08 02:40 PM   #155 
  - Neil deGrasse Tyson, Ph.D (1958- )  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-01-08 12:12 PM   #156 
  - Black Women of the Old West  Chovexani   Oct-04-08 09:05 AM   #157 
  - Thanks.  NOLALady   Oct-04-08 11:45 AM   #158 
  - Reverend John and Jean Rankin, Abolitionists  Lurking_Argyle   Nov-03-08 09:48 AM   #160 
  - "the real McCoy"  Two Americas   Nov-07-08 01:39 PM   #161 
  - This one sure will!  cat_girl25   Nov-07-08 02:20 PM   #162 
  - Racist HOA covenants and the SCOTUS case Shelley vs. Kraemer (1948)  Lurking_Argyle   Dec-09-08 07:54 AM   #163 
  - The Niagara Movement and the beginning of the NAACP  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-06-09 01:05 PM   #164 
  - The 1895 Atlanta Compromise speech  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-06-09 01:11 PM   #165 
  - Racism, the Interstate Highway System, and Urban Renewal  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-23-09 03:06 PM   #166 
  - COAHR and "An Appeal for Human Rights" full-page ad  Brewman_Jax   Mar-09-09 01:06 PM   #167 
  - Claudette Colvin  Brewman_Jax   Mar-16-09 12:57 PM   #168 
  - I think I remember hearing about her  Raineyb   Mar-16-09 01:40 PM   #169 
  - recent history I'm surprised many Americans still don't know:  Blue_Tires   May-12-09 07:33 AM   #170 
  - Nice  Number23   May-12-09 11:47 AM   #171 
  - The Venerable Pierre Toussaint (1766 1853) ..  Princess Turandot   Jun-21-09 06:35 AM   #175 
  - Beautiful. Thanks, Princess  Number23   Jul-08-09 05:01 PM   #179 
  - Funded by slavery  Brewman_Jax   Jul-08-09 10:22 AM   #177 
  - Holy crap.  Number23   Jul-08-09 04:59 PM   #178 
  - I see Ivy Leagues, are present...  bliss_eternal   Jul-23-09 02:21 AM   #188 
  - Corporate collusion  Brewman_Jax   Jul-27-10 02:05 PM   #221 
  - Emory University in Atlanta issues its declaration of regret for slavery involvement  Brewman_Jax   Feb-02-11 08:12 AM   #232 
  - Good thread.  BlooInBloo   Jul-09-09 12:16 AM   #180 
  - Black Indians and Black Cowboys in the Old West  Liberation Angel   Jul-23-09 12:20 AM   #185 
  - Africans in the New World Before Columbus (Malian sailors in 1300's)  Liberation Angel   Jul-23-09 12:23 AM   #186 
  - Eugene Bullard. WWI Flying and fighter ace pilot  Liberation Angel   Jul-23-09 12:24 AM   #187 
  - Great stuff, L_A! Thanks for posting.  Number23   Jul-23-09 03:48 AM   #189 
     - Y'welcome!  Liberation Angel   Jul-23-09 09:55 AM   #190 
  - Black GI's Liberated Nazi death Camps during Holocaust and died in Nazi death camps too  Liberation Angel   Jul-23-09 08:18 PM   #191 
  - bttt.  Karenina   Aug-03-09 02:44 PM   #192 
  - Blue_Tires article on the Buffalo Soldiers would be a good fit here  Number23   Aug-18-09 04:45 PM   #193 
  - Prince Hall, a "founding father of America" and the first Black American Citizens  cato287   Sep-19-09 10:29 AM   #194 
  - The Red Summer Riots  Brewman_Jax   Oct-15-09 10:25 AM   #195 
  - Shirley Franklin (1945- ), Mayor of Atlanta  Brewman_Jax   Jan-02-10 09:56 AM   #196 
  - Brew, thank you for keeping this thread open and for contributing (and allowing others to as well).  Number23   Jan-02-10 04:34 PM   #197 
  - Wyoming's "Black 14" and the mormon church's policies on race  fishwax   Jan-07-10 09:34 PM   #198 
  - Story: The other night our sat teevee was down  EFerrari   Jan-10-10 02:37 PM   #199 
  - "She's 77 and was a radical Latina back in the day."  Number23   Jan-10-10 05:44 PM   #202 
     - Why, thank you very much.  EFerrari   Jan-10-10 10:00 PM   #205 
  - Wow  TheBigotBasher   Jan-10-10 04:07 PM   #200 
  - I'm glad you're here. And your participation is welcome in this forum  Number23   Jan-10-10 05:37 PM   #201 
     - I'm looking forward to.  TheBigotBasher   Jan-10-10 05:56 PM   #203 
  - Percy E. Sutton (1920-2009)  Number23   Jan-10-10 05:58 PM   #204 
  - Desegregation of the US Military  Brewman_Jax   Feb-04-10 08:52 AM   #207 
  - When my Mom first told me  NOLALady   Feb-04-10 01:16 PM   #208 
  - Amelia Boynton Robinson first African American woman from Alabama to run for Congress  Blue_Tires   Feb-04-10 01:34 PM   #209 
  - Garvey and Griggs  RoyGBiv   Feb-06-10 11:07 PM   #211 
  - Feb. 2010 - Greensboro, NC sit-ins turn 50  Number23   Feb-09-10 03:09 PM   #212 
  - David Levering Lewis - first author to win two Pulitzer Prizes for biography for back-to-back volume  Number23   Feb-09-10 03:12 PM   #213 
  - The Myth of the Negro Past, a monograph by Melville J. Herskovitz (1941)  EFerrari   Feb-10-10 02:29 AM   #214 
  - Black Men Built the Capitol. (BookTv presentation)  EFerrari   Mar-02-10 03:10 AM   #215 
  - Two interviews, MLK and Malcolm, on line at PBS.  EFerrari   Mar-11-10 08:07 PM   #216 
  - The Sweet Trials, 1925 and 1926  Brewman_Jax   May-17-10 08:47 AM   #218 
  - Darrell Wallace makes history as first African-American to win NASCAR Pro Series  Blue_Tires   May-18-10 11:38 PM   #219 
  - Ralph Gilles, President and CEO of Dodge  Blue_Tires   Jun-08-10 09:00 AM   #220 
  - Reverend Vernon Johns (1892-1965)  Brewman_Jax   Oct-14-10 10:31 AM   #222 
  - Hands on the Freedom Plow  EFerrari   Oct-26-10 04:20 PM   #223 
  - Va Tech to honor school's first black graduate  fortyfeetunder   Oct-28-10 11:00 PM   #224 
  - this was no small accomplishment...  bliss_eternal   Nov-05-10 04:48 AM   #225 
  - Juliette Hampton Morgan (1917-1957)  Brewman_Jax   Jan-20-11 10:51 AM   #229 
  - Black-American winners of the Nobel Prize  Brewman_Jax   Feb-09-11 01:56 PM   #233 
  - The immortal legacy of Henrietta Lacks  Brewman_Jax   Mar-15-11 09:55 AM   #234 
  - Mass deportations of Mexican-Americans in the 1930's  Brewman_Jax   Jun-27-11 11:34 AM   #235 

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