You are viewing an obsolete version of the DU website which is no longer supported by the Administrators. Visit The New DU.
Democratic Underground Latest Greatest Lobby Journals Search Options Help Login
Google

Reply #133: Bacon's Rebellion (1675-1676) and the beginning of the racial caste system [View All]

Printer-friendly format Printer-friendly format
Printer-friendly format Email this thread to a friend
Printer-friendly format Bookmark this thread
Home » Discuss » DU Groups » Race & Ethnicity » African-American Issues Group Donate to DU
Brewman_Jax Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Thu Apr-17-08 01:37 PM
Response to Original message
133. Bacon's Rebellion (1675-1676) and the beginning of the racial caste system
Virginia Governor Sir William Berkeley had worked to establish peace with the Indian tribes and successfully negotiated a settlement in which lands east of the Blue Ridge Mountains were reserved for the white settlers. However, during the 1640s and 1650s, the burgeoning population began to spill over into Indian lands west of the mountains. This clear violation of treaty obligations led to deadly clashes between the races.

After the restoration of Charles II to the throne at the end of the English Civil War, Parliament passed the Navigation Acts of 1660-63. The tobacco planters in Virginia were no longer able to sell to customers in France, and Dutch ships were prohibited from trading with Virginia. This was not a new concept; mercantilism was based on the assumption that the mother country should receive most of the benefits from the colonies.

Throughout the 1660's, due to the Navigation Acts, tobacco prices were painfully low and Virginia planters struggled economically. The House of Burgesses passed the first official codes to establish perpetual slavery for blacks, but the costs of producing tobacco remained too high compared to the prices paid for the annual crops. Governor William Berkeley coopted the gentry on the Council, and avoided calling a new election for the House of Burgesses between 1661-1676. As a result, there was no political outlet for the unhappy planters. Not surprisingly, the frustrations would be vented in other ways.

In 1673, Nathaniel Bacon, a distant relative of Governor Berkeley, emigrated from England under murky circumstances and set up a small plantation on the James River. He rose rapidly in public esteem and was appointed to the governors council. The Indian issue soon polarized the two men.

The administration of Governor Berkeley became unpopular with small farmers and frontiersmen, because of the following reasons:

-Restrictions on the right to vote the institution of a new land ownership requirement,
-Higher taxes
-Low tobacco prices
-A pervasive sense of subordination to an aristocratic minority
-Lack of protection from Native American attacks

Berkeley was not opposed to fighting Indians who were considered enemies, but attacking friendly Indians, he thought, could lead to what everyone wanted to avoid: a war with "all the Indians against us." Berkeley also didn't trust Bacon's intentions, believing that the upstart's true aim was to stir up trouble among settlers, who were already discontent with the colony's government.

When Bacon threatened to act without authorization, Berkeley declared him a rebel. The response was a public wave of support for Bacon, frightening Berkeley enough to finally schedule an election for a new House of Burgesses. Bacon was elected, and Berkeley let him take his seat on the Council briefly. Bacon quickly left Jamestown, rallied a mob, and attacked innocent Occaneechi, Tutelo, and Saponi Indians. He pillaged their trading base at modern-day Clarksville at the confluence of the Dan and the Roanoke (Staunton) River, then marched back to the capital. The House of Burgesses, intimidated by the mob, passed legislation demanded by Bacon. The governor fled, along with a few of his supporters, to Virginia's eastern shore.

Each leader tried to muster support. Each promised freedom to slaves and servants who would join their cause. But Bacon's following was much greater than Berkeley's. In September of 1676, Bacon and his men set Jamestown on fire.

Bacon died of a "bloody flux" (very likely dysentary) before he and Berkeley met in battle. His forces dissolved without his charismatic leadership, and the General Assembly quickly repealed most of the liberal laws it had passed.

Berkeley's response was very harsh, hanging nearly two dozen men and seizing their estates to compensate his allies whose plantations had been plundered by Bacon's rebels. Charles II is reported to have been surprised at Berkeley's repression, saying "That old fool has hanged more men in that naked country than I have done here for the murder of my father." Charles recalled Berkeley to England, where the governor died.

Bacon's Rebellion demonstrated that poor whites and poor blacks could be united in a cause. This was a great fear of the ruling class -- what would prevent the poor from uniting to fight them? This fear hastened the transition to racial slavery. It's no coincidence that the next series of slave codes, the laws condemning blacks to permanent and hereditary slavery and creating the racial caste system in the colonies, were enacted in Virginia within 5 years of the end of Bacon's Rebellion.



The Slave Codes (1680-1705):
Slave Laws Reflect racism and the Deliberate Separation of Blacks and Whites. Color becomes the Determining Factor. Conscious efforts to police slave conduct rigidly.

1680 -- Prescription of thirty lashes on the bare back "if any negroe or other slave shall presume to lift up his hand against any Christian."
1680's -- Development of a separate legal code providing distinct trial procedures and harsher punishments for negroes.
1680's -- Status of the child is determined by the status or condition of the mother.
1680's -- Severe punishment for slaves who leave their master's property or for hiding or resisting capture.
1691 -- Banishment for any white person married to a negroe or mulatto and approved a systematic plan to capture "outlying slaves."
1705 -- All negroe, mulatto, and Indian slaves shall be held, taken, and adjudged to be real estate.
1705 -- Dismemberment of unruly slaves was made legal.

Bacon's Rebellion helped bring about the racial caste system that would be the constant festering wound in the flesh and soul of the USA to the present day.




http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p274.html
http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h521.html
http://www.virginiaplaces.org/military/bacon.html
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/slavelaw.cfm
Printer Friendly | Permalink | Reply | Top
 
  -Black history that doesn't make it into the history books Lurking_Argyle  Feb-03-06 10:35 AM   #0 
  - CHARLES RICHARD DREW  Xipe Totec   Feb-09-06 08:39 AM   #1 
  - Daniel Hale Williams, MD  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-09-06 09:53 AM   #2 
  - The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-13-06 07:25 AM   #3 
  - What a horrific, evil, vicious trick of  undergroundrailroad   Feb-17-06 07:34 PM   #4 
  - Dr. Delford G. Williams Jr., who blazed medical trails for other blacks,  undergroundrailroad   Feb-17-06 07:52 PM   #5 
  - Shani Davis  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-22-06 08:13 AM   #6 
  - Page not available  Lurking_Argyle   Jun-17-08 10:08 AM   #136 
  - George Poage (1880-1962) , 1st black olympian  Brewman_Jax   Jan-26-11 08:21 AM   #230 
  - Vonetta Flowers, 1st black Winter Olympics gold medal winner  Brewman_Jax   Jan-26-11 09:18 AM   #231 
  - Black Americans in space  fortyfeetunder   Feb-24-06 02:20 AM   #7 
  - Vernon Baker  sandnsea   Feb-26-06 06:58 PM   #8 
  - One of the few black servicemen in WW2  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-27-06 11:23 AM   #9 
     - Addendum  Lurking_Argyle   Dec-15-07 09:42 AM   #113 
  - Dr. Mark Dean  wildeyed   Mar-01-06 06:40 AM   #10 
  - Paul Robeson  Swamp Rat   Mar-05-06 12:59 AM   #11 
  - his name was stricken from the all-american lists after  fishwax   Mar-26-06 12:28 PM   #16 
  - Gordon Parks  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-08-06 08:03 AM   #12 
  - Ever heard of  Karenina   Mar-15-06 03:02 PM   #13 
  - Jazz pioneer/trumpet player who toured with Billie Holiday  Swamp Rat   Mar-25-06 05:27 PM   #15 
     - Thanks Swampers!!!  Karenina   Mar-26-06 04:22 PM   #18 
        - DAMMIT! Dorothy Donegan's not in The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz!!!  Swamp Rat   Mar-26-06 09:29 PM   #20 
  - The undefeated Chuck Ealey  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-19-06 12:00 PM   #14 
  - To finish, in a cruel twist of fate  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-26-06 03:03 PM   #17 
  - NOT surprisingly...  Karenina   Mar-26-06 04:31 PM   #19 
  - ..and more stories about Black QB's.  fortyfeetunder   Apr-01-06 10:27 PM   #24 
  - James Crudup  msgadget   Mar-27-06 01:26 AM   #21 
  - "Life Without Black People" e-mail  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-27-06 07:19 AM   #22 
  - African American Operators of the Underground Railroad  theHandpuppet   Mar-29-06 09:58 AM   #23 
  - Lewis Latimer  Lurking_Argyle   Apr-11-06 12:59 PM   #25 
  - Thank you  DrDebug   Apr-21-06 06:33 PM   #26 
  - Franklin Raines, 1st black CEO of a Fortune 500 company  Lurking_Argyle   Apr-25-06 09:10 AM   #27 
  - Black Like Me '94  Lurking_Argyle   May-03-06 08:35 AM   #28 
  - Inventor Granville T. Woods  Lurking_Argyle   May-05-06 10:06 AM   #29 
  - The slave codes  Lurking_Argyle   May-22-06 08:54 AM   #30 
  - Slave codes and slave ownership  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-30-07 11:02 PM   #104 
  - Hamilton E. Holmes and Charlayne Hunter  Lurking_Argyle   May-31-06 08:25 AM   #31 
  - Autherine Lucy  Lurking_Argyle   Jun-01-06 09:33 AM   #32 
     - Silas Hunt  Lurking_Argyle   Jun-01-06 12:12 PM   #33 
  - some very early history in the Americas  kwassa   Jun-02-06 01:58 PM   #34 
  - Mathias De Sousa ... More info:  Swamp Rat   Aug-16-06 02:14 AM   #46 
  - Crispus Attucks  Lurking_Argyle   Jun-06-06 01:57 PM   #35 
  - John "Bud" Fowler and Moses Fleetwood Walker  Lurking_Argyle   Jun-12-06 08:05 AM   #36 
  - First black soccer players  Lurking_Argyle   Jun-20-06 09:34 AM   #37 
  - To include the women...  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-14-06 10:02 AM   #41 
  - August Wilson  Lucy   Jun-25-06 05:25 PM   #38 
  - The African Grove Theatre NYC 1821-1823  itzamirakul   Jul-23-06 07:00 AM   #42 
  - Theatre goers had to "fight off wandering pigs! - Whoa!  Swamp Rat   Oct-10-06 04:30 AM   #49 
  - August was a good friend of mine  Liberation Angel   Jul-22-09 11:59 PM   #182 
     - Eugene Bullard. WWI Flying and fighter ace pilot  Liberation Angel   Jul-23-09 12:05 AM   #183 
  - List of the nations and tribes of West Africa  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-07-06 08:11 AM   #39 
  - Althea Gibson  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-07-06 12:24 PM   #40 
  - Madame C.J. Walker  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-31-06 03:01 PM   #43 
  - Pierre Landry  Lurking_Argyle   Aug-09-06 10:01 AM   #44 
  - Jason Thomas, 9/11 "mystery" hero.  wildeyed   Aug-15-06 11:14 AM   #45 
  - Angelina Jolie as Mariane Pearl in "A Mighty Heart"  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-11-07 11:01 PM   #97 
     - Mariane Pearl's ancestry  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-21-08 03:26 PM   #142 
  - NFL coaching history  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-05-06 01:39 PM   #47 
  - The 1906 Atlanta Race Riot  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-19-06 08:32 AM   #48 
  - The East St. Louis Massacres  SemperEadem   Mar-18-07 06:01 PM   #81 
  - Detroit Race Riot of 1943  Lurking_Argyle   Apr-04-08 09:59 AM   #130 
  - List of Race Riots in the Jim Crow era  Lurking_Argyle   Apr-04-08 12:35 PM   #131 
  - The 1908 Springfield Race Riot  Lurking_Argyle   Aug-12-08 07:53 AM   #147 
  - Slave rebellions and reporting  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-11-06 09:43 AM   #50 
  - Little known slave rebellions  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-11-06 09:51 AM   #51 
  - St. John slave rebellion of 1733  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-11-06 10:04 AM   #52 
  - Black Seminole slave rebellion  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-11-06 10:09 AM   #53 
  - The Stono Rebellion  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-30-07 07:45 PM   #103 
  - Louisiana Slave Rebellion of 1811  Brewman_Jax   Jan-13-11 12:15 PM   #227 
  - Denmark Vesey  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-28-07 05:53 PM   #73 
  - 1811 Louisiana Slave Rebellion  NOLALady   Feb-06-10 10:17 PM   #210 
  - Witchita sit-in boycott of 1958  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-24-06 02:54 PM   #54 
  - First black NBA coach  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-30-06 10:04 AM   #55 
  - Red Auerbach just died ....  kwassa   Oct-30-06 12:27 PM   #56 
  - Joshua Glover  mark414   Nov-01-06 03:05 PM   #57 
  - Huey Newton  blazinjason   Nov-02-06 06:42 PM   #58 
  - Bobby Seale and Angela davis George Jackson and Jonathan  Liberation Angel   Jul-23-09 12:08 AM   #184 
  - 40 acres and a mule  Lurking_Argyle   Nov-07-06 09:10 AM   #59 
  - Rosewood, FL, January 1923  japple   Nov-08-06 03:09 PM   #60 
  - Ronald Yancey, first black graduate of Georgia Tech  Lurking_Argyle   Dec-08-06 08:25 AM   #61 
  - As an educator, I'd like to thank you for this thread.  Kerrytravelers   Dec-13-06 11:17 PM   #62 
  - Glad I could be of assistance  Lurking_Argyle   Dec-14-06 08:39 AM   #63 
  - Black people on coins  Lurking_Argyle   Dec-14-06 08:42 AM   #64 
  - How neighborhoods go bad  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-05-07 03:12 PM   #65 
  - I've always greatly admired Edna Lewis, the grande dame of Southern chefs  flamingyouth   Jan-07-07 03:46 PM   #66 
  - Vivien Thomas, surgical pioneer (1910-1985)  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-08-07 03:14 PM   #67 
  - Made for TV bio "Something the Lord Made" (2004)  Lurking_Argyle   May-03-07 03:53 PM   #88 
     - need to verify....  bliss_eternal   Nov-09-10 02:55 AM   #226 
  - Black people and mental illness  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-29-07 07:06 PM   #68 
  - Jimmy the Greek, bred black athletes, and where are the white athletes?  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-31-07 04:37 PM   #69 
  - The Port Chicago Mutiny  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-11-07 09:47 AM   #70 
  - Famous first black mayors  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-16-07 02:49 PM   #71 
  - Percy Julian, chemist (1899-1975)  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-17-07 04:59 PM   #72 
  - The term "black Irish"  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-02-07 03:45 PM   #74 
  - good post  mark414   Mar-20-07 05:03 AM   #83 
  - America's racial cleansings  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-11-07 03:40 PM   #75 
  - Without sanctuary--The lynching postcards collection  Lurking_Argyle   Jun-24-07 09:47 PM   #94 
  - More on racial cleasings and sundown towns  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-27-07 04:50 PM   #101 
     - I read about this a few years ago  XemaSab   Jun-17-09 01:40 PM   #173 
  - Doris (Dorie) Miller  jmm   Mar-11-07 06:27 PM   #76 
  - Elizabeth "Lizzie" Jennings  jmm   Mar-11-07 06:32 PM   #77 
  - In the interest of accuracy  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-13-07 06:11 AM   #78 
  - Jim Crow and legislated segregation  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-14-07 05:27 PM   #79 
  - The Jim Crow laws  Lurking_Argyle   Nov-06-07 06:11 PM   #111 
  - Immigrants, discrimination, and Jim Crow  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-24-08 03:12 PM   #128 
  - The Letters of Secession  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-14-07 05:32 PM   #80 
  - Great idea to post these. Thanks!  fishwax   Mar-19-07 07:35 PM   #82 
  - I love those letters! Stops people from weasling out with  SemiCharmedQuark   May-26-07 09:07 PM   #90 
  - "The Cornerstone Speech" by Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-President of the Confederacy  Brewman_Jax   Jan-19-11 01:29 PM   #228 
  - More on "Torn From The Land"  Lurking_Argyle   Apr-11-07 07:51 PM   #84 
  - The Civil Rights Memorial  Lurking_Argyle   Apr-24-07 03:56 PM   #85 
  - Journey on the Underground Railroad  Lurking_Argyle   Apr-30-07 07:18 PM   #86 
  - Jackson State University, May 14, 1970  Lurking_Argyle   May-03-07 03:47 PM   #87 
  - Oldest black neighborhood and church in US  Lurking_Argyle   May-21-07 04:10 PM   #89 
  - The Red Ball Express  Lurking_Argyle   Jun-01-07 04:33 PM   #91 
  - Building the Alaska Highway  Lurking_Argyle   Jun-18-07 04:45 PM   #92 
  - Joseph Rainey, 1st black Member of Congress  Lurking_Argyle   Jun-21-07 04:25 PM   #93 
  - Edward Brooke III (1919- ), 1st black Senator  Lurking_Argyle   Aug-06-08 09:09 AM   #145 
  - The Mann Act of 1910  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-06-07 11:19 AM   #95 
  - Anti-racist allies  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-09-07 06:51 PM   #96 
  - The Scottsboro Boys Trials  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-12-07 04:07 PM   #98 
  - The 1968 Kerner Report  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-14-07 06:23 AM   #99 
  - The Catholic Church and Slavery  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-18-07 04:18 PM   #100 
  - The Negro Motorist Green Book  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-27-07 04:58 PM   #102 
  - Historically Black Colleges and Universities  Lurking_Argyle   Aug-03-07 04:33 PM   #105 
  - Adding to the list  Brewman_Jax   Nov-13-11 06:03 PM   #236 
  - Labor firsts  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-06-07 04:08 PM   #106 
  - School desegregation, Southern Manifesto, and Massive Resistance  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-11-07 04:32 PM   #107 
  - The 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion, aka "The Triple Nickles"  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-05-07 10:33 AM   #108 
  - Haitian troops that fought for the colonies in the American Revolution  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-11-07 04:05 PM   #109 
  - Some recent naval history firsts and facts  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-26-07 04:53 PM   #110 
  - african american female poets  noiretblu   Nov-26-07 05:59 PM   #112 
  - Oh dang I didn't know Gwendolyn Brooks died  Chovexani   Jan-02-08 04:54 PM   #114 
  - Willie O'Ree (1935- ), first black NHL player  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-14-08 11:42 AM   #115 
  - Voter Intimidation 1876 Style  NOLALady   Jan-21-08 04:50 PM   #116 
  - The US Constitution was based on Iroquois Confederation's Constitution  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-22-08 07:37 AM   #117 
  - Susie King Taylor (1848-1912) teacher and nurse  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-28-08 10:57 AM   #118 
  - "The Negro had no rights which the white man was bound to respect..." Roger Taney, Chief Justice  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-01-08 10:05 AM   #119 
  - My wife and I toured Taney's house ...  kwassa   Feb-05-08 02:33 PM   #120 
  - Noted all black Army units of World War II  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-20-08 07:36 AM   #121 
  - 366th Infantry Regiment  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-21-08 08:31 AM   #122 
  - 320th Anti-Aircraft Barrage Balloon Battalion  Brewman_Jax   Jun-09-09 10:19 AM   #172 
  - Eugenics, the racial purity laws, and the "one-drop" rule  Lurking_Argyle   Feb-29-08 02:24 PM   #123 
  - Hypodescent is the term  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-13-08 12:27 PM   #159 
  - Racial classifications  Brewman_Jax   Jun-18-09 10:56 AM   #174 
  - can't say enough  Two Americas   Mar-14-08 01:08 AM   #124 
  - I'm glad that you find it of value  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-14-08 12:53 PM   #125 
     - we love you lurk.  psychmommy   Mar-16-08 10:25 AM   #126 
  - Brownsville incident of 1906  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-24-08 03:00 PM   #127 
  - Houston shootout of 1917  Lurking_Argyle   Mar-25-08 08:40 AM   #129 
  - Dr. Charles Drew--the facts  Lurking_Argyle   Apr-17-08 10:11 AM   #132 
  - Bacon's Rebellion (1675-1676) and the beginning of the racial caste system  Lurking_Argyle   Apr-17-08 01:37 PM   #133 
  - The Orangeburg Massacre  Lurking_Argyle   Apr-21-08 10:47 AM   #134 
  - COINTELPRO  Lurking_Argyle   Jun-17-08 09:59 AM   #135 
  - Affirmative Action and its opponents  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-03-08 02:27 PM   #137 
  - Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke (1978)  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-08-08 10:05 AM   #138 
  - City of Richmond, VA vs. J. A. Croson Co. (1989)  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-08-08 01:28 PM   #139 
  - Gratz vs. Bollinger (2003) and Grutter vs. Bollinger (2003)  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-28-08 03:12 PM   #143 
  - Ricci vs. DeStefano (2009)  Brewman_Jax   Jun-30-09 10:31 AM   #176 
  - State-level anti-affirmative action propositions and initiatives  Brewman_Jax   Jul-21-09 02:13 PM   #181 
  - One thing that escapes notice  Brewman_Jax   Jan-21-10 09:12 AM   #206 
  - L. Douglas Wilder (1931- ), 1st black state governor  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-08-08 01:50 PM   #140 
  - Will Robinson (1911-2008)  Lurking_Argyle   Jul-18-08 12:32 PM   #141 
  - Jackie Ormes (1911-1985), 1st black woman cartoonist  Lurking_Argyle   Aug-04-08 01:58 PM   #144 
  - List of black Academy Award (Oscar) winners  Lurking_Argyle   Aug-11-08 10:04 AM   #146 
  - Stephanie Tubbs-Jones (1949-2008)  Lurking_Argyle   Aug-21-08 07:56 AM   #148 
  - List of famous black Americans  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-11-08 03:22 PM   #149 
  - Donyale Luna (1945-1979), first black supermodel  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-12-08 08:44 AM   #150 
  - Ernie Davis (1939-1963), first black Heisman Trophy winner  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-15-08 09:54 AM   #151 
  - Service academy firsts  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-16-08 08:32 AM   #152 
  - Black voter disenfranchisement  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-17-08 12:11 PM   #153 
  - Landmark Supreme Court Decisions  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-17-08 12:19 PM   #154 
  - The combined court cases  Brewman_Jax   Mar-26-10 11:05 AM   #217 
  - A Short History of Haiti  Lurking_Argyle   Sep-23-08 02:40 PM   #155 
  - Neil deGrasse Tyson, Ph.D (1958- )  Lurking_Argyle   Oct-01-08 12:12 PM   #156 
  - Black Women of the Old West  Chovexani   Oct-04-08 09:05 AM   #157 
  - Thanks.  NOLALady   Oct-04-08 11:45 AM   #158 
  - Reverend John and Jean Rankin, Abolitionists  Lurking_Argyle   Nov-03-08 09:48 AM   #160 
  - "the real McCoy"  Two Americas   Nov-07-08 01:39 PM   #161 
  - This one sure will!  cat_girl25   Nov-07-08 02:20 PM   #162 
  - Racist HOA covenants and the SCOTUS case Shelley vs. Kraemer (1948)  Lurking_Argyle   Dec-09-08 07:54 AM   #163 
  - The Niagara Movement and the beginning of the NAACP  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-06-09 01:05 PM   #164 
  - The 1895 Atlanta Compromise speech  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-06-09 01:11 PM   #165 
  - Racism, the Interstate Highway System, and Urban Renewal  Lurking_Argyle   Jan-23-09 03:06 PM   #166 
  - COAHR and "An Appeal for Human Rights" full-page ad  Brewman_Jax   Mar-09-09 01:06 PM   #167 
  - Claudette Colvin  Brewman_Jax   Mar-16-09 12:57 PM   #168 
  - I think I remember hearing about her  Raineyb   Mar-16-09 01:40 PM   #169 
  - recent history I'm surprised many Americans still don't know:  Blue_Tires   May-12-09 07:33 AM   #170 
  - Nice  Number23   May-12-09 11:47 AM   #171 
  - The Venerable Pierre Toussaint (1766 1853) ..  Princess Turandot   Jun-21-09 06:35 AM   #175 
  - Beautiful. Thanks, Princess  Number23   Jul-08-09 05:01 PM   #179 
  - Funded by slavery  Brewman_Jax   Jul-08-09 10:22 AM   #177 
  - Holy crap.  Number23   Jul-08-09 04:59 PM   #178 
  - I see Ivy Leagues, are present...  bliss_eternal   Jul-23-09 02:21 AM   #188 
  - Corporate collusion  Brewman_Jax   Jul-27-10 02:05 PM   #221 
  - Emory University in Atlanta issues its declaration of regret for slavery involvement  Brewman_Jax   Feb-02-11 08:12 AM   #232 
  - Good thread.  BlooInBloo   Jul-09-09 12:16 AM   #180 
  - Black Indians and Black Cowboys in the Old West  Liberation Angel   Jul-23-09 12:20 AM   #185 
  - Africans in the New World Before Columbus (Malian sailors in 1300's)  Liberation Angel   Jul-23-09 12:23 AM   #186 
  - Eugene Bullard. WWI Flying and fighter ace pilot  Liberation Angel   Jul-23-09 12:24 AM   #187 
  - Great stuff, L_A! Thanks for posting.  Number23   Jul-23-09 03:48 AM   #189 
     - Y'welcome!  Liberation Angel   Jul-23-09 09:55 AM   #190 
  - Black GI's Liberated Nazi death Camps during Holocaust and died in Nazi death camps too  Liberation Angel   Jul-23-09 08:18 PM   #191 
  - bttt.  Karenina   Aug-03-09 02:44 PM   #192 
  - Blue_Tires article on the Buffalo Soldiers would be a good fit here  Number23   Aug-18-09 04:45 PM   #193 
  - Prince Hall, a "founding father of America" and the first Black American Citizens  cato287   Sep-19-09 10:29 AM   #194 
  - The Red Summer Riots  Brewman_Jax   Oct-15-09 10:25 AM   #195 
  - Shirley Franklin (1945- ), Mayor of Atlanta  Brewman_Jax   Jan-02-10 09:56 AM   #196 
  - Brew, thank you for keeping this thread open and for contributing (and allowing others to as well).  Number23   Jan-02-10 04:34 PM   #197 
  - Wyoming's "Black 14" and the mormon church's policies on race  fishwax   Jan-07-10 09:34 PM   #198 
  - Story: The other night our sat teevee was down  EFerrari   Jan-10-10 02:37 PM   #199 
  - "She's 77 and was a radical Latina back in the day."  Number23   Jan-10-10 05:44 PM   #202 
     - Why, thank you very much.  EFerrari   Jan-10-10 10:00 PM   #205 
  - Wow  TheBigotBasher   Jan-10-10 04:07 PM   #200 
  - I'm glad you're here. And your participation is welcome in this forum  Number23   Jan-10-10 05:37 PM   #201 
     - I'm looking forward to.  TheBigotBasher   Jan-10-10 05:56 PM   #203 
  - Percy E. Sutton (1920-2009)  Number23   Jan-10-10 05:58 PM   #204 
  - Desegregation of the US Military  Brewman_Jax   Feb-04-10 08:52 AM   #207 
  - When my Mom first told me  NOLALady   Feb-04-10 01:16 PM   #208 
  - Amelia Boynton Robinson first African American woman from Alabama to run for Congress  Blue_Tires   Feb-04-10 01:34 PM   #209 
  - Garvey and Griggs  RoyGBiv   Feb-06-10 11:07 PM   #211 
  - Feb. 2010 - Greensboro, NC sit-ins turn 50  Number23   Feb-09-10 03:09 PM   #212 
  - David Levering Lewis - first author to win two Pulitzer Prizes for biography for back-to-back volume  Number23   Feb-09-10 03:12 PM   #213 
  - The Myth of the Negro Past, a monograph by Melville J. Herskovitz (1941)  EFerrari   Feb-10-10 02:29 AM   #214 
  - Black Men Built the Capitol. (BookTv presentation)  EFerrari   Mar-02-10 03:10 AM   #215 
  - Two interviews, MLK and Malcolm, on line at PBS.  EFerrari   Mar-11-10 08:07 PM   #216 
  - The Sweet Trials, 1925 and 1926  Brewman_Jax   May-17-10 08:47 AM   #218 
  - Darrell Wallace makes history as first African-American to win NASCAR Pro Series  Blue_Tires   May-18-10 11:38 PM   #219 
  - Ralph Gilles, President and CEO of Dodge  Blue_Tires   Jun-08-10 09:00 AM   #220 
  - Reverend Vernon Johns (1892-1965)  Brewman_Jax   Oct-14-10 10:31 AM   #222 
  - Hands on the Freedom Plow  EFerrari   Oct-26-10 04:20 PM   #223 
  - Va Tech to honor school's first black graduate  fortyfeetunder   Oct-28-10 11:00 PM   #224 
  - this was no small accomplishment...  bliss_eternal   Nov-05-10 04:48 AM   #225 
  - Juliette Hampton Morgan (1917-1957)  Brewman_Jax   Jan-20-11 10:51 AM   #229 
  - Black-American winners of the Nobel Prize  Brewman_Jax   Feb-09-11 01:56 PM   #233 
  - The immortal legacy of Henrietta Lacks  Brewman_Jax   Mar-15-11 09:55 AM   #234 
  - Mass deportations of Mexican-Americans in the 1930's  Brewman_Jax   Jun-27-11 11:34 AM   #235 
 

Home » Discuss » DU Groups » Race & Ethnicity » African-American Issues Group Donate to DU

Powered by DCForum+ Version 1.1 Copyright 1997-2002 DCScripts.com
Software has been extensively modified by the DU administrators


Important Notices: By participating on this discussion board, visitors agree to abide by the rules outlined on our Rules page. Messages posted on the Democratic Underground Discussion Forums are the opinions of the individuals who post them, and do not necessarily represent the opinions of Democratic Underground, LLC.

Home  |  Discussion Forums  |  Journals |  Store  |  Donate

About DU  |  Contact Us  |  Privacy Policy

Got a message for Democratic Underground? Click here to send us a message.

© 2001 - 2011 Democratic Underground, LLC