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Reply #108: Technetium: The first synthetic element; still being made by doctors. [View All]

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NNadir Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Thu Mar-03-05 10:25 PM
Response to Reply #82
108. Technetium: The first synthetic element; still being made by doctors.
In my series of pedantic monologues :-) on the nature of fission products, the next element I would like to explore is Technetium.

I will cover this fascinating and widely used completely synthetic element much as I did above with cesium, giving a brief introduction followed by a section which will describe the dangers and problems associated with Technetium, followed by a section describing the mitigating factors and important technological.

My references will include a volume of the wonderful Analytical Chemistry of the Elements Series, a series of books written in the 1960's and 1970's by Russian Chemists and later translated into English by Israeli chemists. The particular volume is entitled "The Analytical Chemistry of Technetium, Promethium, Astatine and Francium." (Ann Arbor-Humphrey Science Publishers, 1970) I will refer to this fabulous text as ACTPAF.

An aside: This series has been out of print for years, but if you look hard enough you can always find a used copy of a particular volume you want to buy. I bought my first volume back in the early 80's. Last year my wife found a volume on line for the Analytical chemistry of Plutonium. It's wonderful to be loved.

I shall also be using the fourth edition of Cotton and Wilkinson's "Advanced Inorganic Chemistry" John Wiley 1980 (I need a newer addition, but I'll call this AC), and the National Research Council's "Nuclear Wastes" published by the National Academy Press. This work was published in 1996. (I'll call it Nus) I will also briefly refer to th 26th Edition of the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, (HO CAP), which was released was current during 1942-1943, the years the Manhattan Project was under full steam.

Technetium was first known as "manganese" by Mendeleev, who predicted, although no such element was then known, that an element with atomic number 43 should exist and that it should have chemical properties very much like Manganese or perhaps like Rhenium, the very rare and exotic element that has limited use because of its high cost. After Mendeleev's elegant prediction, scientists lusted heartily after element 43. Some deluded themselves into thinking they had discovered it. Names like aluminum, Devin, lyceum, Nippon and Mariam were all proposed and even adopted. (My 1943 HO CAP calls element 43 Mariam. (ACTCAP pg 1)

Then the Italian Chemists Segre and Perrier bombarded molybdenum (element 42) with deuteron's. The product was unambiguously identified and ultimately the name Technetium was given in honor of the fact that this was the first artificial element ever made.

Technetium is a fission product, and is readily available at a metric ton scale from so called "nuclear waste." However much of the technetium in the environment comes from not from nuclear plants but from small portable cyclotrons in hospitals. These use the original reaction in which Mo-98 is bombarded with deuterons. The resultant technetium is then injected into a patient complexed variously for the purpose intended for its action. Of all the fission products it seems that technetium is the most widely used. Many hundreds of thousands of people have been treated with Technetium either by eating it or having it injected. It is also used to treat cancers by providing a targetable means of getting to bind to troublesome cells, like cancer cells.

More will follow.
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  -EU study of external costs of energy: What you pay with your flesh. NNadir  Mar-07-04 07:23 PM   #0 
  - external costs of Chernobyl?  villager   Mar-07-04 07:29 PM   #1 
  - At Three Mile Island the external costs were essentially zero.  NNadir   Mar-07-04 08:02 PM   #4 
     - "Yours is a reaction that is pretty typical, and pretty wrong"  villager   Mar-07-04 10:15 PM   #6 
        - The condescension derives from scientific reality.  NNadir   Mar-14-04 12:21 AM   #16 
           - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-14-04 09:40 AM   #17 
           - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-14-04 09:46 AM   #18 
              - Nice tombstone treepig  jpak   Mar-07-05 10:27 AM   #123 
                 - Yeah right.  NNadir   Mar-07-05 05:59 PM   #127 
           - Chernobyl's soiled legacy  Bdog   Mar-14-04 02:15 PM   #19 
           - I have the full one page article in front of me and will type the data...  NNadir   Mar-15-04 11:51 AM   #23 
           - On the subject of controls and comparisons.  NNadir   Mar-15-04 12:30 PM   #24 
           - It proves, once again  Bdog   Mar-17-04 08:50 AM   #37 
              - I hate corrupt DNA.  NNadir   Mar-17-04 09:50 AM   #41 
                 - I know...  Bdog   Mar-17-04 09:31 PM   #44 
                    - DNA is the program of life.  Bdog   Mar-17-04 10:40 PM   #45 
                    - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-18-04 06:28 AM   #47 
                       - 'Sophisticated Molecular Machine' Is Found To Govern Cell's Reading Of DNA  Bdog   Mar-18-04 08:41 AM   #49 
                          - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-18-04 01:49 PM   #52 
                    - No, I care very deeply. Which is why I have spent decades understanding  NNadir   Mar-18-04 10:19 AM   #51 
           - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-15-04 01:37 PM   #25 
              - Thanx for jumping in here.  NNadir   Mar-15-04 03:45 PM   #27 
                 - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-15-04 05:31 PM   #30 
                 - I hate to disagree, but Chernobyl is rarely discussed so dispassionately.  NNadir   Mar-15-04 08:17 PM   #31 
                    - My only beef with nuclear power is  JCCyC   Mar-17-04 09:34 AM   #38 
                       - This is true. The resource will only last about three millenia.  NNadir   Mar-17-04 09:43 AM   #39 
                          - Would it last 3000 years...  JCCyC   Mar-17-04 09:48 AM   #40 
                          - It would last about 3000 years if world-wide energy consumption stabilized  NNadir   Mar-18-04 11:04 PM   #61 
                          - 3000 year supply??? Don't think so...  jpak   Mar-06-05 05:12 PM   #119 
                             - Yeah right.  NNadir   Mar-06-05 06:12 PM   #120 
                                - The concentration of uranium in seawater is 3 g (micrograms) per liter  jpak   Mar-07-05 11:37 AM   #124 
                                   - Yeah right.  NNadir   Mar-07-05 05:58 PM   #126 
                 - Honesty and politics  cprise   Mar-16-04 05:29 AM   #32 
                    - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-16-04 06:35 AM   #33 
                    - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-16-04 06:44 AM   #34 
                    - Actually it is not "hysteria". The study I included shows that while  NNadir   Mar-16-04 07:18 AM   #35 
           - Chernobyl raised mutations 600%  Bdog   Mar-14-04 02:20 PM   #20 
           - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-15-04 01:47 PM   #26 
           - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-15-04 05:22 PM   #29 
           - Fitness loss and germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl  Bdog   Mar-14-04 03:08 PM   #21 
              - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-15-04 05:12 PM   #28 
                 - It proves, once again  Bdog   Mar-17-04 08:48 AM   #36 
                    - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-17-04 03:53 PM   #42 
                       - Perhaps you dont understand what you are reading and quoting.  Bdog   Mar-17-04 09:25 PM   #43 
                          - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-18-04 06:25 AM   #46 
                             - Just some advice.  NNadir   Mar-18-04 07:15 AM   #48 
                             - Meow  Bdog   Mar-18-04 09:27 AM   #50 
                                - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-18-04 02:09 PM   #53 
                                   - Name one place ...  Bdog   Mar-18-04 02:33 PM   #54 
                                      - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-18-04 03:15 PM   #55 
                                      - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-18-04 03:46 PM   #56 
                                      - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-18-04 03:50 PM   #57 
                                         - Your posts are silly and meaningless.  Bdog   Mar-18-04 07:18 PM   #58 
                                            - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-18-04 08:23 PM   #59 
                                               - Well done.  NNadir   Mar-18-04 10:44 PM   #60 
                                                  - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-19-04 06:46 AM   #62 
                                                     - Well the question of hormesis arose, as I understand it, because  NNadir   Mar-19-04 02:29 PM   #63 
                                                     - Deleted message  Name removed   Mar-20-04 07:54 AM   #64 
  - Fascinating what a mixed bag it is!  Ready4Change   Mar-07-04 07:35 PM   #2 
  - I'm not so surprised to see PV at 0.6  RoadRunner   Mar-07-04 07:49 PM   #3 
  - When you look at the numbers PV does quite well.  NNadir   Mar-07-04 08:10 PM   #5 
     - PV is more valuable than that  cprise   Mar-08-04 12:14 AM   #7 
  - Now it's worth it to look at total cost, external + generating.  NNadir   Mar-08-04 10:41 PM   #8 
  - There is a huge difference between refereed journals and promotional  Bdog   Mar-09-04 10:22 AM   #9 
  - Oh jeeze...  NNadir   Mar-09-04 11:43 AM   #10 
     - toxic uranium tailings next to river that supplies water to southern CA  Bdog   Mar-13-04 01:21 PM   #15 
  - There is a problem with that chart  cprise   Mar-09-04 12:48 PM   #11 
  - Gee, I hate to agree with you on something, but that's a valid criticism.  NNadir   Mar-13-04 01:37 AM   #13 
  - Generator  BareKnuckledLiberal   Mar-12-04 09:50 PM   #12 
  - Cool song. I remember the fool Sting, a blatant consumer if there ever  NNadir   Mar-13-04 01:43 AM   #14 
  - What a great debate  JetCityLiberal   Mar-15-04 01:40 AM   #22 
  - If no one objects, I would like to kick this thread up so it's  NNadir   Mar-31-04 04:24 PM   #65 
  - I would like to repeat the statement in post #65.  NNadir   May-23-04 12:34 AM   #66 
  - As I am referring to this study in another thread, I'm kicking it again.  NNadir   Jun-13-04 04:27 PM   #67 
  - Deleted message  Name removed   Jul-03-04 08:56 AM   #68 
  - I recall you from the old days at SmirkingChimp.  NNadir   Jul-03-04 09:48 AM   #69 
  - Deleted message  Name removed   Jul-03-04 10:00 AM   #70 
  - Nice strawman seventhson  jpak   Mar-08-05 01:21 PM   #136 
  - I bump this thread every once in a while when I need it in another thread.  NNadir   Aug-14-04 02:42 AM   #71 
     - Bump away. Its a good thread.  Moderator   Aug-14-04 02:59 AM   #72 
        - If you don't mind, I will do it again, as I need it again.  NNadir   Sep-18-04 10:45 AM   #73 
           - Once again.  NNadir   Nov-15-04 07:02 PM   #74 
  - I have studied these issues.  Mackenzie   Nov-20-04 10:45 PM   #75 
  - My own main "objections"  BareKnuckledLiberal   Nov-21-04 05:46 AM   #76 
  - These are valid concerns.  NNadir   Nov-21-04 10:42 AM   #78 
  - In terms of noise and traffic, it is rather like an office park, from what  NNadir   Nov-21-04 10:07 AM   #77 
     - Thank you.  Mackenzie   Nov-21-04 10:55 AM   #79 
        - In defense of those of us who protested; we had very little history  NNadir   Nov-21-04 11:21 AM   #80 
  - Let us now consider how much waste is generated by coal.  NNadir   Dec-28-04 07:55 PM   #81 
  - For my discussion of radioiodide I need these figures on mercury from coal  NNadir   Mar-31-05 07:13 PM   #169 
  - Let us now consider the quantity and quality of "nuclear waste."  NNadir   Dec-31-04 06:47 AM   #82 
  - First links to some discussions here of the induction product tritium.  NNadir   Feb-19-05 09:42 AM   #83 
  - Cesium, Sakarhov, and Pauling. My first impressions of radiocesium.  NNadir   Feb-19-05 10:52 PM   #84 
  - Cesium: The bad news.  NNadir   Feb-19-05 11:07 PM   #85 
  - #1: Cesium forms lots of soluble compounds.  NNadir   Feb-19-05 11:09 PM   #86 
  - #2. Cesium is a rather common fission product.  NNadir   Feb-19-05 11:16 PM   #87 
  - #3 Cesium is not of vast economic importance.  NNadir   Feb-19-05 11:23 PM   #88 
  - #4. The isotope Cs-135 has a very long half-life.  NNadir   Feb-19-05 11:26 PM   #89 
  - #5. The transmutation of Cesium isotopes is complicated and difficult.  NNadir   Feb-19-05 11:31 PM   #90 
  - Do you have any well-documented sources  RafterMan   Feb-19-05 11:55 PM   #93 
     - I have a non-internet source in my home library.  NNadir   Feb-20-05 12:28 AM   #94 
     - You may wish to check post #100, (my #5) below which addresses this  NNadir   Feb-20-05 09:05 AM   #102 
  - #6. Cesium-137 is a powerful gamma emitter.  NNadir   Feb-19-05 11:33 PM   #91 
  - Cesium: Mitigating factors and good news.  NNadir   Feb-19-05 11:39 PM   #92 
     - Here is my source  RafterMan   Feb-20-05 12:35 AM   #95 
     - #1: At full power, the yield of Cesium-135 is substantially reduced.  NNadir   Feb-20-05 07:06 AM   #96 
     - #2 The bioavailability of cesium isotopes decrease quickly in soils.  NNadir   Feb-20-05 07:13 AM   #97 
     - #3The earth naturally contains hundreds of billions of curies of K and Rb.  NNadir   Feb-20-05 07:22 AM   #98 
     - #4 A very stable water insoluble cesium mineral is known.  NNadir   Feb-20-05 07:51 AM   #99 
     - #5. At constant power, less and less cesium forms every year.  NNadir   Feb-20-05 09:02 AM   #100 
     - There is a typo in this post.  NNadir   Feb-20-05 10:47 AM   #103 
     - I think there's another typo  RafterMan   Feb-20-05 10:30 PM   #105 
        - I think you may be making a mistake.  NNadir   Feb-21-05 07:28 AM   #106 
        - It's just plain wrong -period.  jpak   Mar-07-05 01:44 PM   #125 
           - Yeah right.  NNadir   Mar-07-05 06:14 PM   #128 
              - If anyone serious wants a more detailed description of radioequilibrium  NNadir   Mar-07-05 06:39 PM   #129 
     - I have more on this subject of mitigation, good news, and technology but  NNadir   Feb-20-05 09:04 AM   #101 
     - #6 Even if 100% escaped, radiocesium would have trivial biological effects  NNadir   Feb-20-05 07:09 PM   #104 
     - The - most - bizarre - post - ever  jpak   Mar-07-05 07:14 PM   #130 
        - Yeah right.  NNadir   Mar-07-05 07:35 PM   #131 
           - The annual dose from K-40 in human tissue is  jpak   Mar-07-05 08:41 PM   #132 
              - Yeah right.  NNadir   Mar-07-05 09:00 PM   #135 
     - Cesium-135 is the most potent ion propulsion engine fuel known.  NNadir   Feb-22-05 07:55 PM   #107 
  - Technetium: The first synthetic element; still being made by doctors.  NNadir   Mar-03-05 10:25 PM   #108 
  - Errata and additions.  NNadir   Mar-04-05 09:04 PM   #109 
  - An interesting note on the Noddacks, "Masurium" and Rhenium.  NNadir   Mar-12-05 02:24 AM   #143 
  - Technetium: Fission yield then the bad news about Technetium.  NNadir   Mar-05-05 12:25 PM   #113 
     - #1: Technetium has an "intermediate" half-life of 211,100 years.  NNadir   Mar-05-05 07:58 PM   #115 
     - #2: The aqueous chemistry of Technetium is dominated by an anion.  NNadir   Mar-05-05 08:49 PM   #116 
     - #3: Pertechnic acid and ditechnetium heptaoxide are volatile compounds.  NNadir   Mar-06-05 05:37 AM   #117 
     - #4: The radioequilibrium value for Tc accumulation is theoretically high.  NNadir   Mar-06-05 08:57 AM   #118 
     - #5: Technetium heptafluoride is volatile.  NNadir   Mar-06-05 08:44 PM   #121 
     - Note my error in post #82. I noticed this in preparation for the Tc  NNadir   Mar-06-05 09:31 PM   #122 
     - Stenography is not Science  jpak   Mar-07-05 08:46 PM   #133 
     - Yeah right.  NNadir   Mar-07-05 08:58 PM   #134 
        - Nonsense  jpak   Mar-12-05 02:34 PM   #145 
           - Whatever.  NNadir   Mar-12-05 03:29 PM   #146 
              - Some of us know all about chemistry and radiation  jpak   Mar-12-05 04:28 PM   #147 
                 - Yeah right.  NNadir   Mar-12-05 07:02 PM   #148 
     - Technetium: Mitigating Factors and Good News.  NNadir   Mar-08-05 07:04 PM   #137 
        - #1: Ammonium pertechnate is one of the best corrosion inhibitors known.  NNadir   Mar-08-05 10:20 PM   #138 
        - #2: People routinely have technetium injected into their veins.  NNadir   Mar-09-05 07:00 PM   #139 
        - #3. Monoisotopic Tc is easily transmutable into valuable ruthenium.  NNadir   Mar-09-05 10:55 PM   #140 
        - Technetium has a high melting point, and excellent mechanical properties.  NNadir   Mar-10-05 09:52 PM   #141 
        - #5. Technetium is a pure beta emitter with no decay chain.  NNadir   Mar-11-05 09:52 PM   #142 
        - #6. The rate of migration of Tc at Oklo was 0.01 mm/year.  NNadir   Mar-12-05 11:44 AM   #144 
        - Just to be a little more graphic about this, this means that if the Tc  NNadir   Mar-13-05 06:35 AM   #150 
        - #7. Technetium fluoride is volatile.  NNadir   Mar-12-05 07:47 PM   #149 
        - #8. I happen to be in a university library (not the library I usually...  NNadir   Mar-15-05 05:31 PM   #151 
  - Radioiodine: In medicine, in nuclear catastrophe, in injury, & in death.  NNadir   Mar-20-05 04:00 PM   #156 
  - Radioiodine, risks, difficulties, concerns and problems.  NNadir   Mar-22-05 07:00 PM   #157 
  - #1: Iodine is important in the chemistry of life.  NNadir   Mar-23-05 09:25 PM   #158 
  - #2. Iodine easily escapes in nuclear war, accidents and reprocessing.  NNadir   Mar-25-05 08:20 PM   #159 
  - #3. Radioequilibrium places few limits on the accumulation of I-129.  NNadir   Mar-26-05 04:53 PM   #162 
  - #4. Physical decontamination of I-129 is technically impossible.  NNadir   Mar-26-05 08:44 PM   #163 
  - #5. At the Oklo nuclear reactors, iodine was not retained in the reactor.  NNadir   Mar-27-05 09:56 AM   #164 
  - #6. I-129 is always produced in the presence of I-127.  NNadir   Mar-27-05 11:04 PM   #165 
  - #7: Iodine has little economic value.  NNadir   Mar-30-05 10:00 PM   #168 
  - Iodine, the Greenpeace Headlines and Reality.  NNadir   Mar-29-05 08:10 PM   #166 
     - #1. Iodine is a trace biological element; I-129, a trace of a trace.  NNadir   Mar-30-05 05:16 AM   #167 
     - #2: Iodine can be recovered and contained, but is it worth it to do so?  NNadir   Mar-31-05 09:28 PM   #170 
     - Relevant to this case, consider this article.  NNadir   Apr-01-05 05:39 AM   #171 
     - #3: The creation of one atom of I-129 prevents 71 actinide decays.  NNadir   Apr-02-05 08:16 AM   #172 
     - Iodine is easily transmutable into valuable xenon.  NNadir   Apr-03-05 08:04 AM   #173 
     - #5. The main cancer associated with I-131 is largely curable.  NNadir   Apr-10-05 06:32 AM   #174 
  - Radionuclides with intermediate half-lives.  NNadir   Apr-29-05 07:42 PM   #175 
     - The chemistry, biochemistry and nuclear physics of Strontium.  NNadir   May-01-05 05:47 AM   #176 
        - Strontium, risks, difficulties, concerns and problems.  NNadir   May-09-05 09:52 AM   #179 
  - Total newbie question here.  BlueEyedSon   Mar-05-05 05:49 AM   #110 
  - An excellent question,  NNadir   Mar-05-05 08:11 AM   #111 
     - SOTA = state of the art. Years ago the thermal problem with  BlueEyedSon   Mar-05-05 12:01 PM   #112 
        - It has changed for some reactors, not all.  NNadir   Mar-05-05 12:43 PM   #114 
           - PBR, and not the beer  dcfirefighter   Mar-25-05 10:24 PM   #160 
              - I am often asked this question.  NNadir   Mar-26-05 06:39 AM   #161 
  - I Live in the Heart of Coal Country  MountainKeeper   Mar-15-05 11:47 PM   #152 
  - I feel for you. I am very much aware of what is being done to your home.  NNadir   Mar-16-05 04:46 AM   #153 
     - Yes, the State of West Virginia could ban that practice today  jpak   Mar-16-05 11:17 AM   #154 
        - Yeah right.  NNadir   Mar-16-05 10:34 PM   #155 
  - PV has higher externalities than nuclear????  Filius Nullius   May-02-05 12:33 AM   #177 
     - This is calculation, not religion. Their methods are given.  NNadir   May-02-05 02:59 AM   #178 

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