You are viewing an obsolete version of the DU website which is no longer supported by the Administrators. Visit The New DU.
Democratic Underground Latest Greatest Lobby Journals Search Options Help Login

Reply #20: Coercive Assimilation, 1900s to 1960s [View All]

Printer-friendly format Printer-friendly format
Printer-friendly format Email this thread to a friend
Printer-friendly format Bookmark this thread
This topic is archived.
Home » Discuss » Latest Breaking News Donate to DU
seemslikeadream Donating Member (1000+ posts) Send PM | Profile | Ignore Fri Apr-02-04 09:24 AM
Response to Reply #19
20. Coercive Assimilation, 1900s to 1960s

Throughout both their histories, the U.S. and Canadian governments have used their dealings with Native Americans to increase federal power. During removal and the Indian Wars, the U.S. government, especially the federal army, grew not only in manpower but also in bureaucracy. Provisioning federal troops, supplying them, and establishing the governing agencies for Native Americans increased the size and power of the national government. Similarly in Canada, the Indian Act and the numbered treaties created large governing agencies. Such bureaucraciesknown eventually in the United States as the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and as the Department of Indian Affairs (later the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, or DIAND) in Canadaexerted powerful influences over the everyday lives of Native Americans, particularly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

Beginning mainly in the 1880s in the United States and shortly thereafter in Canada, these government agencies instituted programs that aimed to reconfigure the fabric of Native American life. Known as the assimilation campaigns, these policies attempted to transform Native Americans into citizens by stripping them of their lands, cultures, languages, religions, and other markers of their ethnic identity. Assimilation brought continued challenges to Native Americans, many of whom had only recently been confined to reservations and reserves.

For many Native Americans, such cultural attacks were as painful and difficult as the previous generations of war. Native American communities lost their children, who were sent to U.S. boarding schools and Canadian residential schools where families were prohibited from visiting and children were punished for speaking their languages. Some Native American religious rituals, such as the Ghost Dance and Sun Dance, were outlawed. Native American men were forced to abandon previous forms of economic subsistence, such as buffalo hunting, for the distant hope of becoming farmers. Many communities were resettled onto reservation lands in the least desirable and fertile parts of their former territories. Everywhere, government control and surveillance of Native American life increased.
The bitter irony of so many of these coercive policies was that those who developed them believed they were acting in the best interests of Native Americans. Many of Americas leading religious leaders and progressive reformers helped lead this assault to kill the Indian, but save the man. Senator Henry Dawes, for example, sincerely believed that he was helping Native Americans when he sponsored the Dawes Severalty Act, or the General Allotment Act of 1887. That act divided Native American reservations, which were owned communally, into separate plots of land owned by individual tribal members. Supporters thought the act would civilize Native Americans by making them ranchers and farmers and instill individualism.
Printer Friendly | Permalink |  | Top
  - Parliamentary honour for Zimbabwe reporter seemslikeadream  Apr-02-04 07:26 AM   #0 
  - If anyone's interested, you can actually hear this man speak:  AP   Apr-02-04 07:41 AM   #1 
  - Deleted message  Name removed   Apr-02-04 07:59 AM   #2 
  - Huh?  AP   Apr-02-04 08:15 AM   #4 
  - Parliamentary Honour for Zimbabwe Reporter  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 08:07 AM   #3 
  - Just for a little perspective:  AP   Apr-02-04 08:25 AM   #6 
     - Native American Sacred Traditions and Western Culture  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 09:04 AM   #17 
        - The logical next step: Venezuela Denounced at OAS  AP   Apr-02-04 09:07 AM   #18 
  - 10,000 'died of hunger' in Zimbabwe  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 08:24 AM   #5 
  - Why do people die in Africa? Because colonialism and postcolonialism  AP   Apr-02-04 08:31 AM   #8 
     - Colonialism in America  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 08:50 AM   #11 
        - It's even worse than that.  AP   Apr-02-04 08:54 AM   #12 
           - Native Americans  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 08:56 AM   #13 
              - time to start tying these threads together...  AP   Apr-02-04 08:58 AM   #15 
                 - Colonialism in America  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 09:37 AM   #21 
  - Zimbabwe journalist arrested  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 08:28 AM   #7 
  - So what happened at the trial? Was he found guilty of any of the charges?  AP   Apr-02-04 08:36 AM   #9 
     - TRAIL OF TEARS  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 11:09 AM   #30 
        - We were talking about T-R-I-A-L-S (not t-r-a-i-l-s)  AP   Apr-02-04 01:05 PM   #33 
  - Mercenaries fall into arms trap  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 08:41 AM   #10 
  - So let me get this straight. Zimbabwe had a coordinated effort to trap  AP   Apr-02-04 08:56 AM   #14 
     - Indian, American Indian, and Native Americans: Counterfeit Identities  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 09:00 AM   #16 
        - Fear and Voting in Latin America: A Report from El Salvador and Venezuela  AP   Apr-02-04 09:10 AM   #19 
           - Coercive Assimilation, 1900s to 1960s  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 09:24 AM   #20 
  - British colonialism.  David__77   Apr-02-04 09:58 AM   #22 
     - The IMF has said that Zimbabwe needs to close half their national banks.  AP   Apr-02-04 10:05 AM   #23 
     - I agree with you completely  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 10:06 AM   #24 
        - War Against the Weak - Edwin Black  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 10:12 AM   #25 
        - Hey, I'm all for that.  AP   Apr-02-04 10:13 AM   #26 
        - Bad land title?  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 10:30 AM   #27 
           - Tell me what you want, and we'll work it out.  AP   Apr-02-04 12:49 PM   #31 
        - So what is your program for the U.S.  David__77   Apr-02-04 10:36 AM   #28 
           - I am a realist  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 10:52 AM   #29 
              - You're talking about me, right?  AP   Apr-02-04 12:52 PM   #32 
                 - AP  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 01:42 PM   #34 
                    - Again, I'm having an impossible time understanding your point.  AP   Apr-02-04 02:07 PM   #35 
                       - AP  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 02:27 PM   #36 
                          - What? I can't have an opinion?  AP   Apr-02-04 02:36 PM   #37 
                             - No doubt you can have an opinion  seemslikeadream   Apr-02-04 03:06 PM   #38 
                                - Huh?  AP   Apr-02-04 09:02 PM   #39 

Home » Discuss » Latest Breaking News Donate to DU

Powered by DCForum+ Version 1.1 Copyright 1997-2002
Software has been extensively modified by the DU administrators

Important Notices: By participating on this discussion board, visitors agree to abide by the rules outlined on our Rules page. Messages posted on the Democratic Underground Discussion Forums are the opinions of the individuals who post them, and do not necessarily represent the opinions of Democratic Underground, LLC.

Home  |  Discussion Forums  |  Journals |  Store  |  Donate

About DU  |  Contact Us  |  Privacy Policy

Got a message for Democratic Underground? Click here to send us a message.

© 2001 - 2011 Democratic Underground, LLC