Wild Weekend in Venezuela
April 20, 2002
By Richard Prasad
Friday, April 12, 2002, a Venezuelan businessman led a coup
against the democratically elected leader of that country,
Hugo Chavez. The question now is, did the US meet with the
leaders of that coup, and encourage them to overthrow a democratically
elected government? And if the US didn't encourage the coup,
did it give tacit approval of the action by its denouncement
of Chavez and his policies?
The man who took over Venezuela, amid violent protests that
left twelve people dead, was a man by the name of Pedro Carmona
Estanga, the head of the country's largest business organization,
and an economist, according to an April 12th CNN.com article.
Estanga would lead a military junta until new elections were
called. Estanga had led an economic revolt since becoming
head of Fredecameras, against Chavez' state run economic policies.
One of the fist actions the interim president took was to
reinstate several military leaders fired by Chavez. Estanga
thought that would cement his reign for at least a little
while. He was mistaken.
In the two days that they held power the military did some
troubling and undemocratic things. They abolished Congress
and the Supreme Court, The military leaders promised congressional
elections by this December, and a Presidential election in
a year, according to an April 13th Washington Post article.
The history of military juntas in Latin America suggests that
democratic elections would have probably never taken place.
The military coup was short lived, however, because by Sunday,
April 14th, 2002 Hugo Chavez was back in power and sounding
somewhat conciliatory. According to an April 15th Washington
Post article, Chavez said he was ready to have round table
discussions with opposition leaders, this is a far cry from
the Chavez who called those opposition leaders "subversives
who should move to Miami." He also reached out to the Catholic
church saying that his government could be accepting of any
differences he had with the church and could work together
with the church. In the past, Chavez had called church leaders
"devils in vestments"
What was the US reaction toward this three day rollercoaster?
The Bush Administration's line was clear. A terse statement
released by the state department on the day of coup, blamed
the Chavez government for the coup. "Undemocratic actions
committed or encouraged by the Chavez government provoked
the crisis in Venezuela." The State Department statement actually
went on to thank the Venezuelan military for showing restraint
and not firing into the crowds of demonstrators. The US was
clearly taking sides here and they were siding with the people
who pulled off the coup, and not with the democratically elected
leader of Venezuela.
The US went further, not even referring to the coup as a
coup, but as a "change in government," according to an April
13th Washington Post article. How's that for a euphemism ladies
and gentlemen? White House spokesman Ari Fleisher stated quite
untruthfully, "Chavez lost his job because of a message sent
by his people." Wrong, Ari. True the people were demonstrating
against Chavez, as is allowed in democratic nations, but Chavez
lost his job because he was removed by a military coup.
George W. Bush's personal disdain for Chavez was evidenced
as early as last month, when he met with four of Venezuela's
neighbors but refused to meet with Chavez himself. The administration
said that last month's meetings with Andean leaders discussed
trade, and therefore did not need to include Venezuela.
Not only were the members of the Bush administration cheering
the coup from the sidelines, it is now clear that Bush Administration
officials actually met with coup leaders. According to an
April 16th New York Times article, several members of the
Bush Administration met with the coalition who were plotting
the coup over the last few months. There are conflicting accounts
of what the US told opposition leaders at that meeting. One
US official said, "We were very clear: There is a Constitutional
process, we didn't even wink at anyone." But a Defense Department
official says the message was not as clear. "We were not discouraging
people." That clearly meant: Do what you want and the US will
look the other way. And that is exactly what happened. It
doesn't really matter if the Bush administration actively
sought a coup or not, the administration's indifference to
the coup spoke volumes about their intentions.
Why is there such disrespect for Hugo Chavez from the Bush
Administration? Part of it is undoubtedly ideological, Chavez
tried to mix Marxist-Lenninist economic ideas with populism,
and this appealed to the four out of five Venezuelans living
below the poverty line right now in Venezuela. According to
an April 13th Washington Post article, Chavez sought to weaken
the power of institutions in Venezuela, increase his own power
and that of the military, by rewriting the Constitution, and
tried to seize private property. This caused many of his early
supporters to doubt his sincerity about trying to help the
poor. The fact that Chavez picked fights with popular institutions
like labor unions, the Catholic Church and the media didn't
help his cause either. His alliance with leaders like Fidel
Casto has perhaps hurt him most in Venezuela, a country yearning
for freedom and democracy. Chavez' legacy is hardly a positive
one, his tenure has been marked by corruption and class warfare.
Chavez also criticized the Bush administration's war on terror
as "fighting terror with terror" and further alienated the
Bush Administration by meeting with Muammar Khadafi. Having
said all that, Chavez was still democratically elected and
should have been democratically removed.
The second reason for the Bush Administration's antagonistic
relationship with Hugo Chavez is more clear. It is oil. Venezuela
is the world's fourth leading exporter of oil, and is the
second leading exporter of oil to the US. Chavez believes
in sticking to OPEC restrictions in oil supply. His opposition
believes in market forces controlling the price of oil. With
Iraq shutting down oil production, and Iran threatening to
do the same, the Bush administration clearly saw saying nothing
while the coup was taking place as an economic advantage for
the US. As increasing gas prices hurt the American economy,
getting in good with Estenga, a free market economist, would
definitely mean more oil and cheaper gas for the US. It didn't
matter that Estenga was backed by the miitary. Tacit approval
of Estenga's regime had a lot to do with the economics and
politics of petroleum.
How did Latin America see the coup attempt? They did not
like it. The Organization of American States Secretary General
said in an April 16th article in CNN.com, as he met with Chavez.
Venezuelans must find a way to express dissent Constitutionally."
"Polarization must give way to reconciliation and understanding."
The OAS universally condemned the coup, and the military's
attempt to overthrow the democratically elected government.
The vacillation of Bush policy in this instance, alternating
from silence to seeming to side with the coup leaders has
done nothing to enhance the Bush Administration's reputation
as a force for democracy in Latin America.
Ironically, Bush hailed Friday, April 12th as Pan American
day and hailed the Democratic Charter signed by the OAS in
1991. But in his first chance to use the charter as an example,
George W. waffled.
There has been much talk about the so-called "Bush doctrine"
in the war on terror and its so-called moral clarity. The
US will not deal with terrorists or those countries who harbor
terrorists. There is a corollary to the Bush doctrine, that
very few people like to talk about. The neo-conservatives
blithely refer to the corollary as regime change. The Bush
administration currently controlled by neo cons like Paul
Wolfowitz sees nothing wrong with undemocratic, militarily
induced changing of regimes. They did it, quite rightly in
Afghanistan, getting rid of some of the Taliban and Al-Queda,
but currently the neo cons are pushing regime change in Iraq,
Iran and North Korea. The so-called axis of evil. This is
where the Bushites have gone too far.
The problem with regime change, is that the leaders of these
regime changes, if they are favorable to the US, are soon
seen as puppets of the US by the rest of the world, and that
is why the US lacks credibility in the world. The US installed
the Shah, and years later Islamic fundamentalism swept over
Iran as a reaction to the Shah being perceived as a US puppet.
The bottom line is, for the most part, the regime that takes
over is hardly any better than the one it replaced.
It is the mindset of regime change that stopped the Bush
administration from forcefully denouncing the regime change
in Venezuela. As long as it benefits the US, in some way,
it doesn't matter how the regime is changed. Or so the thinking
goes. But where is the moral clarity in that policy? The morally
clear position in this instance would have been to clearly
and forcefully denounce the coup, and stand up for democracy.
Yet another failure for the morally clear Bush foreign policy.