If he were color deficient, then he would've used color more "haphazardly". In other words where he was using a yellow orange in the painting above, he may have added a yellow green (for the sake of argument) in random places without realizing they were different colors.
I've taught color deficient student and know of one instance (related to me by a former teacher of mine) where the artist was painting abstractly and would throw in random patches of hot pinks and lime greens in an otherwise muted field of color. When asked by my teacher why he was doing that, the artist had no clue what my teacher was talking about.
So, no. It's very highly unlikely that he used color in such a controlled manner and was in any way color deficient.