13. Across the history of work, skill shifts have caused under-employment.
That is a reality of life and has been for the duration of humankind and work. The industrial revolution idled workers that had no skill other than their muscle and backs. The invention of the automobile idled workers that had skills suitable for the era of the horse and buggy. In both those changes, a percentage of workers were underemployed. I am one that think full employment is impossible, what we have to do as a society is have the fortunate share more with the unfortunate, but that model will work only if the fortunate are mandated to share and the unfortunate use the lifeline wisely.