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Tuesday Afternoon

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Medicinal use of leeches

Medicinal leeches are any of several species of leeches, but most commonly Hirudo medicinalis, the European medicinal leech.

The European medical leech Hirudo medicinalis and some congeners, as well as some other species, have been used for clinical bloodletting for thousands of years. The use of leeches in medicine dates as far back as 2,500 years ago, when they were used for bloodletting in ancient India. Leech therapy is explained in ancient Ayurvedic texts. Many ancient civilizations practiced bloodletting, including Indian and Greek civilizations. In ancient Greek history, bloodletting was practiced according to the humoral theory, which proposed that, when the four humors, blood, phlegm, black and yellow bile in the human body were in balance, good health was guaranteed. An imbalance in the proportions of these humors was believed to be the cause of ill health. Records of this theory were found in the Greek philosopher Hippocrates' collection in the fifth century BC. Bloodletting using leeches was one method used by physicians to balance the humors and to rid the body of the plethora.

The use of leeches in modern medicine made a small-scale comeback in the 1980s after years of decline, with the advent of microsurgeries, such as plastic and reconstructive surgeries. In operations such as these, problematic venous congestion can arise due to inefficient venous drainage. Sometimes, because of the technical difficulties in forming an anastomosis of a vein, no attempt is made to reattach a venous supply to a flap at all. This condition is known as venous insufficiency. If this congestion is not cleared up quickly, the blood will clot, arteries that bring the tissues their necessary nourishment will become plugged, and the tissues will die. To prevent this, leeches are applied to a congested flap, and a certain amount of excess blood is consumed before the leech falls away. The wound will also continue to bleed for a while due to the anticoagulant hirudin in the leeches' saliva. The combined effect is to reduce the swelling in the tissues and to promote healing by allowing fresh, oxygenated blood to reach the area.

The active anticoagulant component of leech saliva is a small protein, hirudin. Discovery and isolation of this protein led to a method of producing it by recombinant technology. Recombinant hirudin is available to physicians as an intravenous anticoagulant preparation for injection, particularly useful for patients who are allergic to or cannot tolerate heparin.

Medicinal leech therapy made an international comeback in the 1970s in microsurgery, used to stimulate circulation to salvage skin grafts and other tissue threatened by postoperative venous congestion, particularly in finger reattachment and reconstructive surgery of the ear, nose, lip, and eyelid. Other clinical applications of medicinal leech therapy include varicose veins, muscle cramps, thrombophlebitis, and osteoarthritis, among many varied conditions. The therapeutic effect is not from the blood taken in the meal, but from the continued and steady bleeding from the wound left after the leech has detached, as well as the anesthetizing, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilating properties of the secreted leech saliva. The most common complication from leech treatment is prolonged bleeding, which can easily be treated, although allergic reactions and bacterial infections may also occur.

Because of the minuscule amounts of hirudin present in leeches, it is impractical to harvest the substance for widespread medical use. Hirudin (and related substances) are synthesised using recombinant techniques. Devices called "mechanical leeches" that dispense heparin and perform the same function as medicinal leeches have been developed, but they are not yet commercially available.

more at link:

Posted by Tuesday Afternoon | Sun Apr 20, 2014, 12:39 PM (2 replies)

About The State flower: Dogwood (1941)

An old and beautiful legend says that, at the time of the crucifixion, the dogwood was comparable in size to the oak tree and other large trees of the forest. Because of its firmness and strength it was selected as the timber for the cross.

But to be put to such a cruel use greatly distressed the tree. Sensing this, the crucified Jesus in his gentle pity for the sorrow and suffering of all said to it:

"Because of your sorrow and pity for My sufferings, never again
will the dogwood tree grow large enough to be used as a cross.
Henceforth it will be slender, bent and twisted and its blossoms
will be in the form of a cross.

Two long and two short petals. In the center of the outer edge
of each petal there will be nail prints.

Happy Easter to all who celebrate and Peace to all.
Posted by Tuesday Afternoon | Sun Apr 20, 2014, 12:25 PM (10 replies)

Justice4Cecily (warning: Larg-ish photo)

A high-profile Occupy Wall St. activist, Cecily McMillan, is facing trial this week and potentially 7 years in state prison after she was sexually assaulted by a police officer in Zuccotti Park in 2012.

Today, the judge ruled that her attorney - Marty Stolar - cannot speak to the press about her case.

Visit http://justiceforcecily.com/ to learn more about the case and break the mainstream media gag order.

Posted by Tuesday Afternoon | Wed Apr 16, 2014, 12:10 PM (0 replies)

a-ha -

Posted by Tuesday Afternoon | Sun Apr 13, 2014, 12:38 PM (1 replies)


Whether it's being asked if they would like a "girl toy" or "boy toy" or the pink and blue color-coded aisles of major toy stores, we hear from many parents that they and their kids are tired of the gender stereotypes associated with toys. That's why it's exciting to see this manager being proactive about breaking down the idea that girls and boys should automatically prefer certain types of toys -- after all, plenty of girls like Skylanders and many boys are fans of My Little Pony.

Gender stereotyping of children's toys is limiting to both girls and boys -- just like fostering spatial and analytic skills in girls is important so is teaching boys how to be nurturing. Let's encourage other managers to follow Lorena's great example and, hopefully, the industry will decide to stop serving up gender stereotypes with their kids' meals and make it a company policy. Kudos to Lorena for taking the lead!

For more stories of both real-life and fictional girls and women confronting sexism and prejudice in a multitude of forms, visit our "Gender Discrimination" section at http://www.amightygirl.com/books/social-issues/prejudice-discrimination?cat=69

On A Mighty Girl, we feature thousands of empowering toys that reflect the diverse range of children's interests including science, arts & crafts, building, and pretend play. While our toy collection was created with Mighty Girls in mind, we believe both girls and boys will love the featured toys, just as we believe that all children benefit from the girl-empowering books and resources found throughout A Mighty Girl. To browse our toy section, which is sortable by age and theme using the left menu filters, visit http://www.amightygirl.com/toys
Posted by Tuesday Afternoon | Sat Apr 12, 2014, 02:12 AM (14 replies)

When will men realize that we are onto them?

Mean and cruel and hatred are emotions, too - and some of those fuckers


so fucking tired of their bullshit.

Posted by Tuesday Afternoon | Sat Apr 12, 2014, 01:51 AM (0 replies)

Lifeboat = The Movie

LIFEBOAT has to be one of the most feminist films every made. The army nurse, fresh from an affair with a married man, who wastes no time making a new conquest, supervises an amputation and leads a murderous mob against a Nazi, is the *nice* girl! She may have been second fiddle to Captain Tallulah Bankhead but she was as brave and worthy a seafarer as any man. Mary Anderson, who played Nurse Alice MacKenzie, was the last surviving member of the crew. She died today at 96.

In the Atlantic during WWII, a ship and a German U-boat are involved in a battle and both are sunk. The survivors from the ship gather in one of the boats. They are from a variety of backgrounds: an international journalist, a rich businessman, the radio operator, a nurse, a steward, a sailor and an engineer with communist tendencies. Trouble starts when they pull a man out of the water who turns out to be from the U-boat.

more at link:
Posted by Tuesday Afternoon | Tue Apr 8, 2014, 01:59 PM (7 replies)

President Obama Takes a Stand for Women on Equal Pay Day

Women in the U.S. make roughly one-third less than men doing the same jobs, which means it would take a woman from January 1 to April 8 the following year (or more than 15 months) to earn what a man does in 12 months. That’s why workers across the country recognize today as Equal Pay Day—a reminder that we still have a long way to go to achieving gender equality in the workplace.

The Paycheck Fairness Act, which would ban employers from punishing employers for speaking about their wages, was voted down in 2012 and is expected to fail again this week.

But President Obama is not waiting any longer for Congress to help fix the wage gap. He signed an executive order today that could make a huge difference in the way employers pay their workers.

First, the executive order bans all federal contractors from retaliating against those who discuss their salaries with coworkers. Rules banning pay-related discussions have allowed employers to hide gender and race inequalities, as in the case of Lilly Ledbetter, who didn’t learn until it was too late that she was being underpaid. When Ledbetter finally discovered that she was making thousands less than her male co-workers and sued her employer, the Supreme Court ruled that she filed too long after her first unequal paycheck for the complaint to be valid. The Institute for Women’s Policy Research released a report in January that showed 51 percent of women are discouraged or prohibited from discussing their salaries with other employees—not to mention that there are policies in place that prohibit workers such as Ledbetter from discussing their pay.

more at link:

Posted by Tuesday Afternoon | Tue Apr 8, 2014, 01:43 PM (2 replies)

I am Ready ...

Posted by Tuesday Afternoon | Fri Mar 28, 2014, 12:07 AM (6 replies)

Ok. Is it just me or does any one else see

The irony of aikoaiko locking that thread in GD? Of all the hosts serving they let one that has posted in the thread be the one to lock it. Really?
Posted by Tuesday Afternoon | Wed Mar 26, 2014, 05:03 PM (139 replies)
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