Since the dawn of our history, widely held assumptions of our physical world -when face with empirical evidence to the contrary- did not always fall from grace... well, gracefully. We can look to the trials and eventual vindication of Galileo, the continuing controversy surrounding the recently departed Dr. Halton Arp, or just ask retired NASA Climatologist Dr. James Hanson.
But eventually, inevitably, -through the sacrifice of careers, reputations, and even lives- solid observation and rigorous experimentation, scientific truth finds the light. And this one is a duzzy.
The solar wind (SW), composed of predominantly ∼1-keV H+ ions, produces amorphous rims up to ∼150 nm thick on the surfaces of minerals exposed in space. Silicates with amorphous rims are observed on interplanetary dust particles and on lunar and asteroid soil regolith grains. Implanted H+ may react with oxygen in the minerals to form trace amounts of hydroxyl (−OH) and/or water (H2O). Previous studies have detected hydroxyl in lunar soils, but its chemical state, physical location in the soils, and source(s) are debated. If −OH or H2O is generated in rims on silicate grains, there are important implications for the origins of water in the solar system and other astrophysical environments. By exploiting the high spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we detect water sealed in vesicles within amorphous rims produced by SW irradiation of silicate mineral grains on the exterior surfaces of interplanetary dust particles. Our findings establish that water is a byproduct of SW space weathering. We conclude, on the basis of the pervasiveness of the SW and silicate materials, that the production of radiolytic SW water on airless bodies is a ubiquitous process throughout the solar system.
If anyone is wondering where I'm going with this, I will attempt to anonymously quote one of my local detractors that should be pretty self-explanatory.
You're using electrical terms in a meaningless word salad. Which is par for the course for someone taken in by the 'electric universe' nonsense. 'Anode' and 'cathode' only make sense in terms of a constructed circuit. This thread is a waste of time; I will presume all your other threads starting 'TSODS' will be too.
To date, it has been proven via observation by the STEREO mission that H+ Ions recede from the Sun in collimated "Solar Flux Tubes" that connect the Sun (EU posits electrically) to multiple planetary objects in a fashion not dissimilar to a particle accelerator. On many occasions, H+ particles exhibit acceleration beyond the influence of the Sun presuming SM (Standard Model) theorems. This is indicative of an electrical current that any under-grad electrical engineering student can identify.
The genesis of renewed interest into EU investigations began with the predictions of Wallace Thornhill regarding the Deep Impact Mission and the electrical nature of comets, including the prediction that electro-chemical reactions are the source of water seen in the coma of comets. In wake of the numerous "surprises" that confounded the mission scientists, Thornhill and the EU community in general have been dismissed out of hand by many of the same head scratchers who scrambled to explain the lack of surface water, escape vents, or even an impact creator following the massive event triggered by the Deep Impact lander.
In light of the mounting evidence, I propose a challenge to EU's detractors. Follow the Rosetta Mission with an open mind...