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African-American History Museums Fight to Preserve Their Legacy

This ought to be a festive year for the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit, the largest museum of its kind in the country. Fifty years ago, Dr. Charles H. Wright, a Detroit physician and civil rights volunteer, opened what was then known as the International Afro-American Museum. It was a small but beloved project that grew steadily.

In 1985, the museum moved into a larger facility. ­Then, in 1997, with the city pouring in significant funding, the museum relocated again to a state-of-the art, 120,000-square-foot facility in the city’s cultural center. Billed as the world’s largest Black museum, its gala opening attracted reporters and dignitaries from all over the world.

But within a few years, the Wright Museum, which still receives a sizable portion of its budget from the City of Detroit, encountered financial turbulence.

Its problems were exacerbated in recent years by the financial woes of the Detroit automakers, its biggest corporate benefactors, and the city’s bankruptcy filling. As funding fell sharply, it was forced to cut back on programs and lay off half its staff. Just as the city went through bankruptcy proceedings, serious doubts about the museum’s future arose.

Staying afloat

Like the Wright Museum, the International Civil Rights Center & Museum, in Greensboro, North Carolina, opened its new location with great fanfare in 2010. The museum is located in the old Woolworth building, where in 1960 four freshmen from nearby North Carolina A&T State University staged a sit-in at the lunch counter where they were refused service, kicking off one of the most important moments in the civil rights movement.

Now, five years after the museum opened its doors, it is mired in $26 million of debt and struggling to stay open. According to news reports, the museum has had a difficult time meeting its monthly operating expenses. Last November, the museum board fired its executive director just weeks after he told some past and potential donors that the museum had no money in its operating reserve. The City of Greensboro has offered to take over the management of the museum.

It is estimated that there are more than 300 African-American museums around the country. They span the spectrum—from history to art, music to sports, mom-and-pop operations to larger organizations with dozens of workers.

Samuel Black, president of the Association of African American Museums, estimates that about 40 percent of these museums are financially distressed. In addition to funding issues, he says, many struggle with attracting and retaining quality professional museum staff as well as dealing with board members.

Some also fail to plan well.

“Many of the museums are little museums and the bigger ones are associated with the state or county,” says Terrie Rouse, a veteran museum executive and former head of the California Afro-American Museum. “Many are aspirational instead of realistic. People are emotionally involved and they should be,” but that often doesn’t translate into good numbers, she says.

The economic downturn of the last decade has also been hard on nonprofits in general, particularly small ones with little or no endowments.

“Within the last five or six years, there has been a tremendous amount of stress on all museums because of the recession,” says Martha Morris, assistant director of museum studies at George Washington University and a former deputy director of the Smithsonian National Museum of American History. “Most museums are small, with operating budgets under $500,000 a year. It’s a tough field to be in.”

Adds Black, “It’s no different than other nonprofit organizations.”

But he says one of the key differences between Black museums and other mainstream museums lies in access to funding and constraints in appealing to broader audiences. He also notes that many mainstream museums have been around for decades longer than Black museums, many of which began to emerge in the ’50s and ’60s and were essentially church-run operations.

Black points out that, when the City of Detroit was going through bankruptcy proceedings, the fate of the Detroit Institute of Arts, one of the nation’s largest art museums, was the subject of much concern. National news outlets reported on it and some business and community leaders in the Detroit metropolitan area, as well as city and state officials, immediately began exploring alternatives to save the museum.

In contrast, the problems of the Wright Museum received much less attention. Most of that attention, too, came from the African-American community.


A Salute to the African American Playwright August Wilson

Last week, we were invited to preview a new documentary about the life of Tony and Pulitzer Prize winning playwright August Wilson -- August Wilson: The Ground on Which I Stand, produced by the award-winning filmmaker Sam Pollard.

The documentary will debut on PBS stations nationally this week. This film is a beautiful legacy. It sheds light on a very gifted man who, like many creative people, was raised under difficult circumstances in an underserved area of Pittsburgh. All of his plays were "doors" into the black experience, and from many eras of the American story. In the film, several award-winning actors, who loved the man and the plays he created, shared his life through first-hand stories.

The documentary really touched me as I've been influenced by theater and the arts my entire life. A friend of my mom was the personal assistant to Mary Martin, the great "grand dame" of musicals. Each time Ms. Martin performed in Los Angeles, we were there. A highlight of the experience for a skinny eight-year-old, was the opportunity to visit her dressing room and see the mysteries of the stage first-hand. It was all so very exciting.

My father, Rex Stewart, was a jazz musician with Duke Ellington for over 15 years, and thus introduced my siblings and I to the world of entertainment at a very early age. Being raised in the 50s, it was really clear that seeing a play written by a black playwright was pretty rare, let alone attending a black theater, especially in Los Angeles where I grew up. New York City had a more robust black theater scene and better-established outlets for creative black people.

The Ebony Showcase Theater in Los Angeles was one of the few locally owned and operated black theaters in Los Angeles when it opened its doors in the '50s. Nick and Edna Stewart (Nick played "Lightening" in Amos 'n Andy), were determined to bring theater to the black community, and they wanted to make available a place where up-and-coming black actors and playwrights could practice their craft. Since the Stewarts were friends of my family, it was quite natural for me to visit the theater to see some of their shows and watch the whole practice of stagecraft.

To be honest, it wasn't until much later that I became aware of the importance of this theater and how many black playwrights and actors walked the boards there. I knew of the most famous plays written by black Americans, Raisin in the Sun, For Colored Girls, The Dutchman etc., were performed in this theater, but the theater was also the training ground for many who later became very well known -- John Amos and Isabel Stanford were examples.

February is Black History Month, and it is usually celebrated by the media and others by trotting out some of the older, well-known black heroes. I hold nothing against this practice, but to me, it's the "easy way out." Just dust off George Washington Carver and Martin Luther King (both great role models), and not take the time to delve into black history or culture to find other important icons. A playwright like August Wilson is someone to be publicly honored on a grand scale. His concepts, words and content, are clear insights into the ups and downs of the black experience. All of his plays received acclaim and nods from the beat critics and the general public.


50 Essential African-American Independent Films

While there are still too few African-American voices being recognized in Hollywood, recent films like Ava DuVernay’s Selma and Spike Lee’s Da Sweet Blood of Jesus speak to a vital tradition of black independent filmmakers. Even controversial creators like Tyler Perry hail from a long line of filmmakers that includes the directors and stars of the “race films” of the 1920s and 1930s. Many pioneering African-American directors, like Melvin Van Peebles and Julie Dash, were trailblazers who found money for their fiercely idiosyncratic visions. They defied expectations and proved that there was an audience for films about black characters as told by black artists.

From now until February 19th, New York’s Film Society of Lincoln Center hosts Tell It Like It Is: Black Independents in New York, 1968 – 1986, an exhaustive survey of unsung movies about African Americans. In celebration of the retrospective and Black History Month, Flavorwire has compiled a list of 50 essential African-American independent films:


Today in African American history: Birthday of W.E.B. DuBois

One of the greatest scholars, thinkers and activists for African American liberation was born on this date in 1868 in Great Barrington, Mass. "The cost of liberty," he wrote in 1909, "is less than the price of repression."

William Edward Burghardt DuBois received two B.A. degrees - from Fisk University in 1888 and from Harvard in 1890 - and he was the first African American, in 1895, to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard. He was a professor of economics and history at Atlanta University, 1896-1910. From 1910-32 he edited The Crisis, magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), which he helped to found in 1909. After 1932 he returned to Atlanta as professor of sociology. He served as editor of the Atlanta University "Studies of the Negro Problem" from 1897-1911.

DuBois rose to national prominence as the leader of the Niagara Movement, a group of African American activists who wanted equal rights for blacks. DuBois and his supporters opposed the Atlanta Compromise, an agreement crafted by Booker T. Washington of the Tuskegee Institute, which provided that Southern blacks would submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic educational and economic opportunities. Instead, DuBois insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation, and believed that African Americans needed access to advanced education to develop the community's leadership.

Racism was the main target of DuBois's work. He strongly protested against lynching, Jim Crow laws, and discrimination in education and employment. His cause included people of color everywhere, particularly Africans and Asians. He was a proponent of Pan-Africanism and helped organize several Pan-African Congresses to fight for independence of the African colonies from European powers.

Anti-capitalist, peace activist, communist

DuBois believed that capitalism was a primary cause of racism, and he sympathized with socialist causes throughout his life. He was an ardent peace activist and advocated nuclear disarmament. In 1950 he became chair of the newly created Peace Information Center (PIC), which worked to publicize the Stockholm Peace Appeal in the U.S. The appeal set out to gather signatures on a petition to governments around the world to ban all nuclear weapons. The U.S. Justice Department alleged that the PIC was acting as a foreign agent, and thus required the PIC to register with the government. Du Bois and other PIC leaders refused, and were indicted for failure to register. Some of Du Bois's associates, notably in the NAACP, refused to support him, although many labor figures and leftists, including Langston Hughes, did. After a trial in 1951, with defense attorney Vito Marcantonio arguing the case, the case was dismissed. Nevertheless, the government confiscated Du Bois's passport and withheld it for eight years, until the Supreme Court decided that it was unconstitutional for the State Department to deny a passport to a U.S. citizen for political reasons. DuBois was unable to attend the 1955 Bandung conference in Indonesia, a meeting of 29 nations from Africa and Asia, many recently independent, representing most of the world's people of color.

In 1958, Du Bois regained his passport, and with his second wife, Shirley Graham DuBois, he traveled around the world, visiting both Russia and China, where, at the age of 90, he was celebrated with great honor.

In 1961 the Supreme Court upheld the 1950 McCarran Act, a key piece of McCarthyism legislation which required communists to register with the government. To demonstrate his outrage, DuBois, now 93, joined the Communist Party USA in October 1961. He wrote: "I believe in communism. I mean by communism, a planned way of life in the production of wealth and work designed for building a state whose object is the highest welfare of its people and not merely the profit of a part.

Death in Africa

While visiting Ghana in 1960, DuBois entertained the idea of creating a new encyclopedia of the African diaspora, the Encyclopedia Africana. In early 1961, Ghana notified him that they had appropriated funds to support the project, and invited him to come to Ghana and manage the project. In October of that year, DuBois and his wife moved there to commence work. When in early 1963 the U.S. refused to renew his passport, he made the symbolic gesture of becoming a citizen of Ghana.

His health declined during his two years in Ghana, and he died on August 27, 1963, in the capital of Accra, at age 95. He was buried in Accra near his home, which is now the DuBois Memorial Centre. A day after his death, at the March on Washington, speaker Roy Wilkins asked the hundreds of thousands of marchers to honor DuBois with a moment of silence.


Five African-American Geeks Who Made History

Comedian Chris Rock famously joked that in many schools, African-American history is often limited to the study of Martin Luther King. Although his statement was part of a stand-up comedy act, a 2014 episode of Jeopardy added a hint of truth to that idea when contestants attempted every question in every other category before attempting a single question in the “African-American History” category. With African-American History Month coming to an end, GeekDad wants to highlight five slightly lesser-known African-American geeks that have made enormous contributions to society. One amazing thing to keep in mind is that most of these men and women were geeks at a time when most Blacks in the US didn’t even have access to education.

Benjamin Banneker, Astronomy Geek (1731-1806). Benjamin Banneker was born a free Black man in Maryland. His father was a freed slave from Guinea, and his mother was the daughter of a former slave and an English dairy maid who was an indentured servant. Banneker became slightly obsessed with math and mechanics at an early age, building a working clock almost entirely out of wood at the age of 22. In 1791, he was hired by Major Andrew Ellicot to assist in the survey of the land that would eventually become the District of Columbia. Banneker is probably most famous for the six almanacs he published (in 28 editions) from 1792 to 1797.

Lewis Latimer, Engineering Geek (1848-1928). Lewis Latimer was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts to two escaped slaves from Virginia. His father was actually captured in Boston, and was legally defended by Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison. Lying about his age, Lewis Latimer enlisted in the US Navy at the age of 16 during the Civil War. After the war, he taught himself mechanical drawing and drafting, and he helped Alexander Graham Bell draft the patent for his design of the telephone. And while Thomas Edison is credited with inventing the light bulb, he had a lot of help from Latimer. Latimer holds the patents for the electric lamp and the process of manufacturing carbon filaments used in incandescent bulbs. Those patents were issued in 1881 and 1882. Edison was trying to use paper filaments that quickly burned out. Edison hired Latimer in 1884 and took advantage of his expertise. Some argue that Latimer had much more to do with the invention of the light bulb than he actually gets credit for.

George Washington Carver, Peanut Geek (c. 1864-1943). George Washington Carver was born into slavery in Diamond, Missouri during the Civil War. After the end of the war and after the abolition of slavery, he remained at the house of his owners, as most of the rest of his family had been kidnapped by slave raiders and sold in Kentucky. He was considered too frail for field work, so his owner, Susan Carver, actually did something almost unthinkable at the time–she taught him to read and write. He ultimately left the Carver home and attended a school for Black children. He conducted biological experiments on plants and studied art on his own until he found a university that would admit a Black student. Carver began his post-secondary studies at Simpson College in Iowa, but ultimately ended up studying botany at Iowa State, where he became the university’s first Black student. After graduation, he was hired to lead the Tuskegee Institute’s agricultural department. While there, he engaged in research and teaching that greatly helped struggling sharecroppers in the American South. He even created a mobile classroom, known as the Jessup wagon, to train farmers around the country. And while Carver pioneered research on new uses for soybean, pecan, and sweet potato crops, he is most famous for his work with the peanut. He used these crops to invent everything from plastics to gasoline. Carver gained international fame, becoming a member of the British Royal Society of Arts. He even advised President Theodore Roosevelt on issues related to agriculture in the US.

Bessie Coleman, Aviator Geek (1892-1926). Bessie Coleman was born in Atlanta, Texas, near the Arkansas and Louisiana borders. At the age of 23, she left the poverty and racism of East Texas and moved north to Chicago, where she still encountered racism, but was at least able to find work and accumulate a modest savings. Coleman decided that she wanted to learn how to fly when she heard stories from pilots who returned from World War I. When she was unable to find a flight school in the US that would admit a Black woman, she decided to go learn to fly in Europe. With the financial help of two prominent African-American entrepreneurs, Coleman was able to travel to France where she learned to fly in seven months. When she returned to the US in 1921, she was treated as a celebrity. At that time, very few women of any race had a pilot’s license, let alone an African-American woman. Over the next five years, she performed in numerous air shows, doing amazing stunts. Tragically, Coleman died while practicing for an air show in 1926.

Dr. Mae Jemison, Space Geek (1956-). Mae C. Jemison was born in Decatur, Georgia, but grew up in Chicago, Illinois. Jemison is an all-around, super-bad, class A geek. She has undergraduate degrees in chemical engineering and African/Afro-American studies from Stanford, as well as an MD from Cornell. As if that wasn’t enough, she is an accomplished dancer, and she has studied Russian, Swahili, and Japanese. She also served as a Peace Corps Medical Officer in Liberia and Sierra Leone from 1983 to 1985. In 1987, Jemison was selected for the NASA astronaut program. In September of 1992, Jemison became the first African-American female in space, when she served as the science mission specialist on STS-47 Spacelab-J, a cooperative mission between the United States and Japan. After leaving NASA in 1993, Jemison continued teaching at the university level. She continues to promote the advancement of science and technology, and she is a strong advocate for science education.


$20 billion racial discrimination lawsuit filed against Comcast, Al Sharpton

In the midst of a coming FCC decision about the proposed merger between telco giants Comcast and Time Warner Cable, a group has filed a $20 billion lawsuit alleging that the two companies discriminate against black-owned media companies by simply not carrying them.

The National Association of African-American Owned Media filed the suit in California last week, echoing their actions against DirectTV and AT&T from late last year. Comcast, however, is not the only defendant targeted — MSNBC show host Al Sharpton and various advocacy groups were named in the suit as well.

The suit alleges that TWC and Comcast intentionally avoid picking up networks that are fully owned by African Americans, and that allowing the two to merge would only compound the problem. Via the Hollywood Reporter:

According to the lawsuit, Comcast and TWC "collectively spend approximately $25 billion annually for the licensing of pay-television channels and advertising of their products and services, yet 100% African American-owned media receives less than $3 million per year."

At the time of Comcast's 2010 acquisition of NBCUniversal, Comcast entered into memoranda of understanding with the NAACP, the National Urban League and the National Action Network, but the lawsuit says the voluntary diversity agreements are "a sham, undertaken to whitewash Comcast’s discriminatory business practices."

The suit goes on the allege that the only “fully owned black-channel” Comcast has is the Africa Channel, which former NBCU/Comcast exec Paula Madison owns. Madsion, the suit says, was involved directly in “obtaining government approval for the Comcast acquisition of NBC Universal, thus creating a serious conflict of interest.” And, what’s more, the suit claims that Al Sharpton accepted $3.8 million through his National Action Network to help put a good face on the NBC Universal acquisition.

Read more at http://www.philly.com/philly/blogs/trending/20-billion-racial-discrimination-lawsuit-filed-against-Comcast-Al-Sharpton.html#DlfBs30QBeGSCdTq.99

PBS Documentary Shows America in Denial About Racism

*A provocative PBS documentary, “American Denial,” examines racism partly through the prism of Swedish sociologist Gunnar Myrdal’s 1944 groundbreaking research of Jim Crow racism in the Deep South to show that despite electing Barack Obama as the first African American president we are far from having a post-racial society in the U.S.

“We are still haunted by our own biases,” Lou Smith the Producer and Director of the documentary said.

Myrdal and African American political scientist Ralph Bunche began in 1938 traveling extensively throughout the South and released in 1944 a 1,483-page study on race called “An American Dilemma” that sought to explain what they called the “Negro Problem.” The two who would later become Nobel Peace Prize winners concluded in their research that it was not the Negro causing the problem of racial problems. They discovered many white people in America had their head in the sand about being responsible for racial bias. This film shows a similarity in America exists today.

“He was shocked to his very bones by what he saw,” documentary producer Christine Herbes-Sommers maintained.

Herbes-Sommers, President of Vital Pictures, says that Myrdal raised the question about how can a country so devoted to the American creed of opportunity and liberty for all tolerate such a system of injustice for African Americans?

“That is what we explore in the film. We explore that question,” Herbes-Sommers said.

Smith and Herbes-Sommers collaborated on the documentary for four years, assisted by several scholars and experts who discuss their research and in some instances their own experiences to bring home the point “that we are living largely with denial and denying the existence as it effects our outlooks, our institutions and that we do that at our own peril,” Smith, co-founder and project director at Blue Spark Collaborative, said.

You can take the Implicit Association Test (IAT) by going to http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/blog/implicit-test. This test taken by more than two million people revealed that even the most consciously tolerant may hold prejudices.

American Denial premieres on PBS’ Independent Lens on Monday, February 23, at 10 p.m. ET.

Hear more of Tené Croom’s exclusive interview with Christine Herbes-Sommers and Lou Smith

Read more at http://www.eurweb.com/2015/02/pbs-documentary-shows-america-in-denial-about-racism-listen/#oouZSBWvcoQtcTwh.99

Jerry Lawson, a self-taught engineer, gave us video game cartridges

If you've got fond memories of blowing into video game cartridges, you've got Gerald "Jerry" Lawson to thank. As the head of engineering and marketing for Fairchild Semiconductor's gaming outfit in the mid-'70s, Lawson developed the first home gaming console that utilized interchangeable cartridges, the Fairchild Channel F. That system never saw the heights of popularity of consoles from Atari, Nintendo and Sega, but it was a significant step forward for the entire gaming industry. Prior to the Channel F, games like Pong were built directly into their hardware -- there was no swapping them out to play something else -- and few believed that you could even give a console a microprocessor of its own. Lawson, who passed away at 70 from diabetes complications in 2011, was the first major African-American figure in the game industry. And, just like the tech world today, it still isn't as diverse as it should be.

Only 2 percent of game developers in 2005 were African-American, according to a study by the International Game Developer Association (who also honored Lawson as a game pioneer a month before his death). But things were even worse during Lawson's time: For his first five years at Fairchild, the company and its executives actually thought he was Indian. He was also one of two black members of the Homebrew Computing Club, a group that famously included Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and other Silicon Valley pioneers.

Born on December 1, 1940, Lawson grew up in a Queens, New York, housing project, where his predilection for engineering was on display early on. His father, a longshoreman with a fondness for science, gave him unique gifts like an Irish mail, a handcar typically used by railroad workers. More often than not, Lawson ended up being the only kid that knew how to use them. His mother arranged it so that he could attend a well-regarded elementary school in another part of the city (i.e., one that was predominantly white), and she stayed actively involved in his education throughout his childhood (so much so that she became the president of the PTA). Lawson also credits his first grade teacher as a major inspiration.

"I had a picture of George Washington Carver on the wall next to my desk," he told Vintage Computing in an interview. "And she said, 'This could be you.' I mean, I can still remember that picture, still remember where it was."

It's hard to deny Lawson's geek cred: He ran an amateur radio station out of his housing project after building a ham radio on his own (complete with an antenna hanging out of his window and a radio license). He also spent his teenage years repairing electronics all over the city. Most impressively, he taught himself most of what he knew about engineering. Lawson attended Queens College and the City College of New York before working at several firms, including Grumman Electric and Federal Aircraft. After scoring a job with Kaiser Electronics, which focused on military technology, Lawson moved to Silicon Valley.


How the White House plans to stop ISIS from tweeting

The White House wants to stop terrorists from tweeting.

As part of its plan to counter violent extremism throughout the world, the Obama administration is looking to blunt the impact that groups like the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) have on social media.

Working with foreign nations and private companies, the administration will launch campaigns to counter terrorist groups’ online propaganda, which have become a critical tool in their arsenal to spread their message and horrify people around the globe.

“The U.S. government, in partnership with foreign governments, civil society, and the private sector, is working to weaken the legitimacy and resonance of violent extremist messaging and narratives, including through social media,” the White House said in a fact sheet on Wednesday.
In one effort, the government is organizing multiple “technology camps” to work with companies and community groups “to develop digital content that discredits violent extremist narratives and amplifies positive alternatives,” the White House said.

Additionally, the administration is putting a new focus on countering the extremist groups’ online messages by designating a new special envoy charged with discrediting them and launching a “digital communications hub” to focus specifically on ISIS’s messaging.

Terrorist groups like ISIS have been tremendously successful in spreading their message on websites such as Twitter and YouTube, which have helped launch their message to a global audience. Images of beheadings, masked men holding guns and similar scenes have helped to make the terror group a household name.

Social media websites have come under some pressure to do more to block those groups.

One letter currently circulating around Capitol Hill calls on Twitter to adopt new internal policies so that it treats posts endorsing terrorism like child pornography or pirated content.


Putin Fires Medvedev Ally as Kremlin Rift Grows

Russian President Vladimir Putin has officially dismissed one of his ten advisors, 52-year-old Sergei Dubik, according to a statement posted on the Kremlin’s official website today, after a briefly-worded notice to do so emerged online yesterday.

No reason has been publically given for Dubik’s dismissal, as Russian daily newspaper Vedomosti reports that the Kremlin was not available to comment on the issue when the notice was posted yesterday, however the paper highlights Dubik’s close ties to current prime minister Dmitry Medvedev, during his time as president between 2008 and 2012.

According to his public profile, Moscow-born Dubik has had a long career as a civil servant, his work spanning the start of Putin’s presidential administration in 2001, when he undertook several junior positions as an assistant or deputy of the president’s then-advisors.

In 2009, after Dmitry Medvedev briefly replaced Putin as president with the latter becoming prime minister, Dubik was promoted to Medvedev’s chief of staff and the civil service, taking on the duties of chief secretary of Medvedev’s anti-corruption commission in 2010.

Vedomosti has reported that as of last night’s sacking, a civil servant closer to Putin, Oleg Plohoi, is slated to take on Dubik’s anti-corruption duties, while Russia’s state owned agency Itar-Tass reported that Putin has no immediate replacement for Dubik in his position as advisor. Instead the Russian president will simply operate with nine advisors as opposed to ten.

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