2. There is an alert abuse button on the lower left hand side of each post.... just hit it
Generally these are community standards (CS) issues,but there could be a more serious TOS violations. You can read about these down in the bottom of each page in the terms of service section.
If it is an issue of the post not belonging in that particular forum, then it would be an SOP violation and that would be marked. But generally the kinds of issues that elicit a consideration to alert, are community standards ( or both CS and terms of service--in which case you can hit both).