Mon Aug 19, 2013, 02:07 PM
BainsBane (40,489 posts)
What the History of Slavery Can Teach Us About Slavery Today
Brenda E. Stevenson, professor of history at UCLA
There were three compelling news stories recently about modern day slavery -- in the United States. Ariel Castro, who enslaved three young women, and a child whom he fathered with one of his captives, appeared in court in Cleveland to hear his sentence. Meshael Aayban, a Saudi Arabian princess, pled not guilty to human trafficking in an Orange County, CA courtroom, accused of enslaving one Kenyan woman and possibly four Filipinas. Further up the California coast, Ryan Balletto and Patrick Pearmain were transferred to a federal detention center to await an appearance in a Bay Area federal court on suspicion that they kidnapped, and enslaved, a fifteen-year old runaway girl. Seven weeks ago, investigators charged two women and two men with enslaving at least 15 women in a brothel in San Francisco. On the East Coast, in Virginia and New York, federal authorities accused 7-Eleven franchise owners of enslaving undocumented workers.
Slavery is alive and well in our country, almost one hundred fifty years after its legal end. In 1860, on the brink of the Civil War, the United States had the largest slave society in the Americas, with almost four million held in bondage. While there is no certain way to enumerate the number of slaves in the nation today, many experts believe there are hundreds of thousands, and that these numbers are growing. What can these new examples of enslavement teach us about bondage in the past? And what does our knowledge of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century slavery tell us about the institution and its victims today?
Certainly there are some significant differences between modern U.S. slavery and bondage before the 13th Amendment was ratified in 1865. The most important change is due to that particular constitutional amendment, which stipulates: “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude” shall exist in any of the nation, “except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.” Legally and, for most, morally, holding property in slaves is no longer regarded as an individual right in this nation. Contemporary slaveholders have to be particularly careful to hide or disguise their slave enterprises. They cannot openly exploit or flaunt the benefits of slave labor, as those in the past. Secondly, modern-day slavery draws on persons of all races and ethnic backgrounds; not just people who are ancestrally African or American Indian. The enslaved in recent news stories have been European American, Latino/a, African, and Asian. Relatedly, slave masters today rarely are elite citizens of our society -- presidents, governors, senators -- as some were in the past. Castro was a school bus driver; Balletto and Pearmain were small-time marijuana growers; and Aayban is neither citizen nor permanent resident. Slavery, nonetheless, produces an estimated revenue of $95 billion annually across the globe. The institution is lucrative today, as it was in the past. There are other startling similarities that also connect the past slave experience to that of the present.
The brutal physical, psychological and sexual abuse that Ariel Castro inflicted on Michelle Knight, Amanda Berry, and Georgina DeJesus was typical of what black enslaved women endured over the generations. Michelle Knight’s description of her life of horrors and how she was able to survive it -- through bonding with another slave woman -- suggests the strength and importance of communal bonds as survival and resistance strategies of slaves in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Likewise, these women’s belief that they would not remain in slavery, as well as the Kenyan maid’s mad dash for freedom on an Orange County bus, suitcase in tow, underscore the resilience and resistance of past bondsmen and women. They are our contemporary Frederick Douglass, Harriet Jacobs and Lavinia Bell. Amanda Berry’s determination to shield her daughter from the violence and shame of her conception, and the brutal deaths of her siblings and stepsiblings at the hands of her “father/master,” speaks to the code of silence that many women, and men, evoked in order to shield the devastating experiences of their lives from public view and to protect their children. The “impact statements” that the families of Knight, Berry and DeJesus voiced, echo the sense of loss and devastation that colonial and antebellum slave families experienced when subject to separation and sale; as well as the immense joy they felt when they received word of their kin’s survival or actual return.
Read the rest at: http://hnn.us/articles/what-history-slavery-can-teach-us-about-slavery-today
3 replies, 1507 views
Response to BainsBane (Original post)
Mon Aug 19, 2013, 02:54 PM
frazzled (14,559 posts)
1. And what it can't
Slavery was institutionalized--legally supported by the state--before the 13th amendment. It was not a crime (in Southern states) to buy, own, or sell another human being (well, another human being of African descent). Today it is a crime for anyone to enslave anyone for any purpose.
I find this argument utterly specious: comparing today's occasional criminals who hold or enslave others to a nation's history of institutionalized slavery, widespread and practiced openly, and extended to an entire race of people is not just wrong. It's offensive.
Response to frazzled (Reply #1)
Mon Aug 19, 2013, 03:47 PM
BainsBane (40,489 posts)
2. Only it's not occasional
Last edited Tue Aug 20, 2013, 01:03 AM - Edit history (1)
There are actually more people enslaved today than at any point in history. True, it's not legal and not justified by racism or supported by a legal and political system designed to keep a people in bondage. However, more than twenty million people continue to be enslaved in a wide variety of industries--from sex work, to domestic service, manufacturing, and agriculture. Slavery existed prior to the transatlantic slave trade and it exists today, albeit in different forms. It continued to thrive in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Brazil, to name a few places, after the end of the Civil War in this country. Societies are no longer characterized by what historians refer to as a slave system, where the entire economy depended on slavery, but people continue to be owned by others, even though that ownership is no longer legally sanctioned.