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Wed Nov 28, 2012, 01:52 PM

Largest mass hanging in United States history

What brought about the hanging of 38 Sioux Indians in Minnesota December 26, 1862 was the failure "again" of the U.S. Government to honor it's treaties with Indian Nations. Indians were not given the money or food set forth to them for signing a treaty to turn over more than a million acres of their land and be forced to live on a reservation.

Indian agents keep the treaty money and food that was to go to the Indians, the food was sold to White settlers, food that was given to the Indians was spoiled and not fit for a dog to eat. Indian hunting parties went off the reservation land looking for food to feed their families, one hunting group took eggs from a White settlers land and the rest is history.

Authorities in Minnesota asked President Lincoln to order the immediate execution of all 303 Indian males found guilty. Lincoln was concerned with how this would play with the Europeans, whom he was afraid were about to enter the war on the side of the South. He offered the following compromise to the politicians of Minnesota: They would pare the list of those to be hung down to 39. In return, Lincoln promised to kill or remove every Indian from the state and provide Minnesota with 2 million dollars in federal funds. Remember, he only owed the Sioux 1.4 million for the land.

So, on December 26, 1862, the Great Emancipator ordered the largest mass execution in American History, where the guilt of those to be executed was entirely in doubt. Regardless of how Lincoln defenders seek to play this, it was nothing more than murder to obtain the land of the Santee Sioux and to appease his political cronies in Minnesota.

http://www.unitednativeamerica.com/hanging.html

27 replies, 4562 views

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Arrow 27 replies Author Time Post
Reply Largest mass hanging in United States history (Original post)
dipsydoodle Nov 2012 OP
Larkspur Nov 2012 #1
dangin Nov 2012 #2
denverbill Nov 2012 #3
dipsydoodle Nov 2012 #4
leftlibdem420 Dec 2012 #16
Javaman Nov 2012 #5
dipsydoodle Nov 2012 #7
Javaman Nov 2012 #12
dixiegrrrrl Dec 2012 #14
alarimer Nov 2012 #13
Judi Lynn Nov 2012 #6
dipsydoodle Nov 2012 #8
Judi Lynn Nov 2012 #9
Dyedinthewoolliberal Nov 2012 #10
MindMover Nov 2012 #11
tama Dec 2012 #17
MindMover Dec 2012 #18
happyslug Dec 2012 #15
The Stranger Dec 2012 #19
geardaddy Dec 2012 #20
dipsydoodle Dec 2012 #21
geardaddy Dec 2012 #22
Uncle Joe Dec 2012 #23
geardaddy Dec 2012 #24
tama Dec 2012 #26
tama Dec 2012 #25
geardaddy Dec 2012 #27

Response to dipsydoodle (Original post)

Wed Nov 28, 2012, 02:02 PM

1. This is proof that compromises are not always just

I'll remember this story when the next Third Way/DLC Dem praises the virtues of bipartisanship or compromise.

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Response to dipsydoodle (Original post)

Wed Nov 28, 2012, 02:22 PM

2. I like Lincoln.

Can any of us stand up to a full accounting of our actions? Most of us don't order executions but most of us are not president.

But also, am I incorrect in remembering Lincoln was part of the creation of Liberia? He freed the slaves so they could go back to one sliver of Africa. I may be wrong.

When we embrace our historical heroes, we must be willing to embrace the entirety of them.

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Response to dipsydoodle (Original post)

Wed Nov 28, 2012, 02:28 PM

3. I've known about this for a long time, but do you really agree with this website?

"It is expected that Lincoln be removed from his position as “hero” and relegated to a more appropriate position, to somewhere near the status of “Columbus” and “Hitler.” We demand that Abe Lincoln's dishonest and shameful face be removed from the "occupied" and desecrated area called “Mount Rushmore” immediately. Abe Lincoln “honest” and “hero” No more see online petition at
http://www.petitiononline.com/badabe/petition.html"

You may disagree with the mass hanging, but given the fact that at least 800 people were killed by the Indians, it's not exactly like Lincoln was the bigger mass murderer of the two groups. Considering he commuted the sentences of 90% of the convicted Sioux, he was probably considered a bleeding-heart liberal at the time. Can you imagine if Mexican drugs gangs invaded Arizona and killed 1,000 people before the Army managed to stop them? You can damned well bet many Americans would want every gang member executed, regardless if they were ringleader, shooter, or driver. And if Obama commuted the sentences of 90% of the gang members, the right-wing would be howling.

I think I read about this in Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee years and years ago. America's disregard for treaties with the Indians was unforgivable, but slaughtering innocent civilians wasn't particularly justified either.

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Response to denverbill (Reply #3)

Wed Nov 28, 2012, 02:39 PM

4. In the eyes of the Sioux

I'd guess they were at war. As such the number they killed would be incidental. Well - that's more or less the line the US takes these days anyway when it comes to civilian deaths.

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Response to denverbill (Reply #3)

Sun Dec 2, 2012, 09:54 PM

16. The 800 people killed don't matter.

 

They were living on stolen land without the permission of the original inhabitants. Not that the United States government has ever objected to people of European descent living on stolen land anywhere in the world, particularly Israel.

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Response to dipsydoodle (Original post)

Wed Nov 28, 2012, 03:31 PM

5. I assume you listened to this past Sunday's "This American Life"?

A very moving episode.

I have a friend who is Dakota and is from Minnesota.

I mentioned the show to her and she was happy that someone was talking about it.

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Response to Javaman (Reply #5)

Wed Nov 28, 2012, 03:54 PM

7. Not exactly

I'm UK

It is however a subject which interests me in general. I've been watching a DVD box set - " The Great Indian Wars 1540-1890 "

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Response to dipsydoodle (Reply #7)

Thu Nov 29, 2012, 08:53 AM

12. Then your timing is impeccable. :)

Check out thisamericanlife.com, it was a brilliant podcast.

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Response to Javaman (Reply #12)

Sat Dec 1, 2012, 07:51 PM

14. ty for that link, Javaman.

I keep forgetting I can "hear" radio on the tubes.

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Response to Javaman (Reply #5)

Fri Nov 30, 2012, 07:18 PM

13. My family is from Mankato, which is why it resonates with me.

I hated what that teacher told the students, about how "Indians sometimes have to fight." She (in the audio portion they played) didn't elaborate on WHY they felt like they had to. They were dealing with invaders, nothing more or less.

Still, very moving story.

I am writing this in North Carolina. I also never knew that many people here were opposed to secession at the time and many were executed. The town of Kinston is not far from where I am now. Every state has a hidden history. I've read "Lies My Teacher Told Me" and "Lies Across America," as well as A People's History.

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Response to dipsydoodle (Original post)

Wed Nov 28, 2012, 03:54 PM

6. Thank you, so much. Never knew about this until today. There's NO way to whitewash U.S. genocide

againsst the people who absolutely had no where to run, since this WAS their homeland. They had no other.

There's not a shadow of a doubt who was at fault in the filthy war against the indigenous people. There's not a remote chance what happened to these innocent people can EVER be forgiven. Genocide is NOT a forgivable crime.

Not one stupid excuse will serve to cover this sin against human beings. Calling them "savages" won't make the stain go away, either. Pointing out they weren't "chrstian" won't, either. There can be no forgiveness for something like this.

Too many mass graves where US-supported killers have plied their trade.

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Response to Judi Lynn (Reply #6)

Wed Nov 28, 2012, 03:59 PM

8. The demise of the buffalo

used to help ensure the native population way of life could not be restored was just as bad : http://www.kawvalley.k12.ks.us/schools/rjh/marneyg/03-04_Plains-Projects/graves_04_demise%20of%20buffalo.htm

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Response to dipsydoodle (Reply #8)

Wed Nov 28, 2012, 05:36 PM

9. Yes, it was. It was horrendous reading about it the first time. Unconscionable.

Learning the U.S. Cavalry was sent to destroy vast numbers of buffalo, leaving them dead all over the plains, sometimes in great mountains of slaughtered animals, to lay waste to as many as possible, stealing far more than the food and shelter and clothing needed for daily life horrifies me even now, all these years later.

That can never be understood at less than completely evil. How could they live with their consciences?

~~~~~


Genocide by Other Means: U.S. Army Slaughtered Buffalo in Plains Indian Wars

~snip~
As long as the North American buffalo roamed free and bountiful, the Plains Indians were able to remain sovereign. Buffalo were their lifeline—the Indians had a symbiotic relationship with them, and always honored the mighty beasts for the many blessings they provided. “The creation stories of where buffalo came from put them in a very spiritual place among many tribes,” said University of Montana anthropology and Native American studies professor S. Neyooxet Greymorning. “The buffalo crossed many different areas and functions, and it was utilized in many ways. It was used in ceremonies, as well as to make tipi covers that provided homes for people, utensils, shields, weapons and parts were used for sewing with the sinew.”

~snip~

As the U.S. government and its restless people looked to expand westward after the Civil War, they started to infringe upon Indian lands. During the Plains Indian Wars, as the U.S. Army attempted to drive Indians off the Plains and into reservations, the Army had little success because the warriors could live off the land and elude them—wherever the buffalo flourished, the Indians flourished. But pressure on the Army to contain the Indians increased in the 1860s when gold was discovered in the Montana Territory, and part of what is now eastern Wyoming became the route of the Bozeman Trail, the quickest way to get to the mines in Montana. This trail cut through sacred ground for the Sioux, as well as their prime hunting grounds—the “best game country in the world,” according to one veteran trapper. The Sioux regularly attacked travelers on the Bozeman Trail, and Army forts were set up to protect travelers through the Powder River Basin. During the Indians’ clashes with settlers, prospectors and U.S. Cavalry to protect a last bastion of their food supply in what became known as Red Cloud’s War, U.S. Army Captain Fetterman bragged, “With 80 men I could ride through the whole Sioux Nation.” He soon got the chance to back up that boast: Captain Fetterman and his men met with some representatives of the Sioux Nation and their allies, led by Crazy Horse, on December 21, 1866, in the Powder River Basin, and the result of that battle is remembered in history books as the Fetterman Massacre—all 81 men in his party were slain. It was the Army’s worst defeat on the Plains until the Battle of Little Bighorn, 10 years later, and forced it to pull out of the area after the Fort Laramie Treaty was signed in April 1868.

~snip~
Isenberg said, “Some Army officers in the Great Plains in the late 1860s and 1870s, including William Sherman and Richard Dodge, as well as the Secretary of the Interior in the 1870s, Columbus Delano, foresaw that if the bison were extinct, the Indians in the Great Plains would have to surrender to the reservation system.” Colonel Dodge said in 1867, “Every buffalo dead is an Indian gone,” and Delano wrote in his 1872 annual report, “The rapid disappearance of game from the former hunting-grounds must operate largely in favor of our efforts to confine the Indians to smaller areas, and compel them to abandon their nomadic customs.”

~snip~
Greymorning noted that some revisionists try to blame Indians for the death of the buffalo, but he said one picture is better than a thousand lies: “When you see a photograph of carcasses of buffalo lying miles and miles along stretches of railroad tracks, probably eight to 10 feet high, you know this was part of the government campaign to kill the buffalo.”

More:
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/gallery/photo/genocide-by-other-means%3A-u.s.-army-slaughtered-buffalo-in-plains-indian-wars-30798

~~~~~

You have undoubtedly seen photos taken by the U.S. photographer, Edward Sheriff Curtis of North American Indians. These photographs, although clearly posed, are irreplaceable, taken around the early 1900's.

Here's a quick group with photos:

Photos: North American Indian Photographs by Edward Curtis
Posted Nov 15, 2010

In 1906, American photographer Edward S. Curtis was offered $75,000 to document North American Indians. The benefactor, J.P Morgan, was to receive 25 sets of the completed series of 20 volumes with 1,500 photographs entitled The North American Indian. Curtis set out to photograph the North American Indian way of life at a time when Native Americans were being forced from their land and stripped of their rights. Curtis’ photographs depicted a romantic version of the culture which ran contrary to the popular view of Native Americans as savages.

Born in 1868 in Wisconsin, Curtis moved with his father to the Washington territory in 1887 where he began working at a photography studio in the frontier city of Seattle. Curtis began work on his series in 1895 by photographing Princess Angeline, the daughter of Chief Sealth and published the first volume of The North American Indian in 1907. The last volume wasn’t published until 1930. In more than three decades of work documenting Native Americans, Curtis traveled from the Great Plains to the mountainous west, and from the Mexican border to western Canada to the Arctic Ocean in Alaska.

Below are selected images of the Native American way of life chosen from The Library of Congress’s Edward S. Curtis Collection. Some were published in The North American Indian but most were not published. All the captions are original to Edward Curtis.

(Click for first photo)

http://denverpost.slideshowpro.com/albums/001/496/album-160964/cache/curtis001.sJPG_950_2000_0_75_0_50_50.sJPG?1354118144

1

Title: Sioux chiefs. Date Created/Published: c1905. Summary: Photograph shows three Native Americans on horseback. Photograph by Edward S. Curtis, Curtis (Edward S.) Collection, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. #


http://blogs.denverpost.com/captured/2010/11/15/north-american-indian-photographs-by-edward-curtis/2551/

~~~~~



(Multiple photos in each portfolio)

Vol.1. The Apache. The Jicarillas. The Navaho.

Vol.2. The Pima. The Papago. The Qahatika. The Mohave. The Yuma. The Maricopa. The Walapai. The Havasupai. The Apache-Mohave, or Yavapai.

Vol.3. The Teton Sioux. The Yanktonai. The Assiniboin.

Vol.4. The Apsaroke, or Crows. The Hidatsa.

Vol.5. The Mandan. The Arikara. The Atsina.

Vol.6. The Piegan. The Cheyenne. The Arapaho.

Vol.7. The Yakima. The Klickitat. Salishan tribes of the interior. The Kutenai.

Vol.8. The Nez Perces. Wallawalla. Umatilla. Cayuse. The Chinookan tribes.

Vol.9. The Salishan tribes of the coast. The Chimakum and the Quilliute. The Willapa.

Vol.10. The Kwakiutl.

Vol.11. The Nootka. The Haida.

Vol.12. The Hopi.

Vol.13. The Hupa. The Yurok. The Karok. The Wiyot. Tolowa and Tututni. The Shasta. The Achomawi. The Klamath.

Vol.14. The Kato. The Wailaki. The Yuki. The Pomo. The Wintun. The Maidu. The Miwok. The Yokuts.

Vol.15. Southern California Shoshoneans. The Diegueños. Plateau Shoshoneans. The Washo.

Vol.16. The Tiwa. The Keres.

Vol.17. The Tewa. The Zuñi.

Vol.18. The Chipewyan. The Western Woods Cree. The Sarsi.

Vol.19. The Indians of Oklahoma. The Wichita. The Southern Cheyenne. The Oto. The Comanche. The Peyote Cult.

Vol.20. The Alaskan Eskimo. The Nunivak. The Eskimo of Hooper Bay. The Eskimo of King Island. The Eskimo of Little Diomede Island. The Eskimo of Cape Prince of Wales. The Kotzebue Eskimo. The Noatak. The Kobuk. The Selawik.

http://curtis.library.northwestern.edu/curtis/toc.cgi

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Response to dipsydoodle (Original post)

Wed Nov 28, 2012, 07:21 PM

10. Wow!

I've got to say, I like history and thought I was well read on American history but have never known about this until reading it here.
I suppose the only thing I can offer is it's hard for us to judge, fairly, the actions of people living in a different time or era............

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Response to dipsydoodle (Original post)

Thu Nov 29, 2012, 02:11 AM

11. 307 condemned to die ... 38 died after President reviewed the files ...

I say that the greatest President in the history of our United States saved 269 lives ...

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Response to MindMover (Reply #11)

Mon Dec 3, 2012, 04:51 AM

17. You are a strange case

 

You write a lot about Native American experience, with academic tone, but I see little compassion and comprehension. Can't figure out what moves you to act the way you act, MindMover.

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Response to tama (Reply #17)

Tue Dec 4, 2012, 01:34 AM

18. The truth based in reality moves me ...

Of course you can believe what you want to believe ... but

I choose to believe that a man who pardons 269 Native Americans to return to their families and tribe during a time when a "kill them all mentality", was a decision that I feel and believe and is proven by the man's actions to be compassionate, decent and tolerant ... and were well beyond the societal norms at that time ....

http://www.usaonrace.com/latest-news/did-lincoln-show-the-same-compassion-for-native-americans-as-african-american-slaves

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Response to dipsydoodle (Original post)

Tue Dec 4, 2012, 12:30 PM

19. And to think that there will never be justice.

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Response to dipsydoodle (Original post)

Tue Dec 4, 2012, 12:39 PM

20. It's best not to use the term "Sioux"

as it has a derogatory meaning. Dakota is the recognized version.

The Minnesota History Center has a good exhibit going on right now in remembrance of the 150th anniversary of the U.S.-Dakota War.

http://www.minnesotahistorycenter.org/exhibits/us-dakota-war-of-1862

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Response to geardaddy (Reply #20)

Tue Dec 4, 2012, 12:50 PM

21. I wasn't aware of that.

Thanks for pointing it out.

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Response to dipsydoodle (Reply #21)

Tue Dec 4, 2012, 12:52 PM

22. It's been very contentious here.

There are some bands that use it and some that don't. I have an acquaintance who's half Dakota half Ojibwe (Anishnaabe) and he refers to it as the "S" word.

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Response to geardaddy (Reply #22)

Tue Dec 4, 2012, 01:18 PM

23. That's what I love about D.U. I'm always learning something new.

I didn't know that was a derogatory term either.

Thanks, geardaddy.

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Response to Uncle Joe (Reply #23)

Tue Dec 4, 2012, 01:30 PM

24. No problem!

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Response to Uncle Joe (Reply #23)

Tue Dec 4, 2012, 01:40 PM

26. From wiki

 

Name origins

The name "Sioux" is an abbreviated form of Nadouessioux borrowed into Canadian French from Nadoüessioüak from the early Odawa exonym: naadowesiwag "Sioux". Jean Nicolet recorded the use in 1640. The Proto-Algonquian form *na·towe·wa, meaning "Northern Iroquoian", has reflexes in several daughter languages that refer to a small rattlesnake (massasauga, Sistrurus). This information was interpreted by some that the Odawa borrowing was an insult. However, this Proto-Algonquian term most likely was ultimately derived from a form *-a·towe·, meaning simply "to speak a foreign language", which would make it similar to the etymology of the Greek "Barbarian". Later this was extended in meaning in some Algonquian languages to refer to the massasauga. Thus, contrary to many accounts, the old Odawa word naadowesiwag did not equate the Sioux with snakes. This is not confirmed though, since usage over the previous decades has led to this term having negative connotations to those tribes to which it refers. This would explain why many tribes have rejected this term as an exonym. One source states that the name "Sioux" derives from a Chippewa word meaning "little snake"; Chippewa, or Ojibwa, is a dialectic variant of Odawa.
Some of the tribes have formally or informally adopted traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is also known as the Sičháŋǧu Oyáte, and the Oglala often use the name Oglála Lakȟóta Oyáte, rather than the English "Oglala Sioux Tribe" or OST. The alternative English spelling of Ogallala is considered improper.
Očhéthi Šakówiŋ

The historical Sioux referred to the Great Sioux Nation as the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ (pronounced ), meaning "Seven Council Fires". Each fire was a symbol of an oyate (people or nation). The seven nations that comprise the Sioux are: Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ (Mdewakanton), Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ (Wahpeton), Waȟpékhute (Wahpekute), Sisíthuŋwaŋ (Sisseton), the Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ (Yankton), Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna (Yanktonai), and the Thítȟuŋwaŋ (Teton or Lakota). The Seven Council Fires would assemble each summer to hold council, renew kinships, decide tribal matters, and participate in the Sun Dance. The seven divisions would select four leaders known as Wičháša Yatápika from among the leaders of each division. Being one of the four leaders was considered the highest honor for a leader; however, the annual gathering meant the majority of tribal administration was cared for by the usual leaders of each division. The last meeting of the Seven Council Fires was in 1850.
Today the Teton, Santee, and Ihantowan/Ihanktowana are usually known, respectively, as the Lakota, Eastern Dakota, or Western Dakota. In any of the three main dialects, "Lakota" or "Dakota" translate to mean "friend," or more properly, "ally." Usage of Lakota or Dakota may then refer to the alliance that once bound the Great Sioux Nation.

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Response to geardaddy (Reply #20)

Tue Dec 4, 2012, 01:37 PM

25. And more

 

East Dakota, West Dakota, Lakota and in some sense also Nakota
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Sioux_Nation

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Response to tama (Reply #25)

Tue Dec 4, 2012, 01:43 PM

27. Yes. n/t

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