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Tue Feb 5, 2013, 09:02 PM

President Carter investigated FDR's Japanese American Internment.

Japanese American internment

President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the internment with Executive Order 9066, issued February 19, 1942, which allowed local military commanders to designate "military areas" as "exclusion zones," from which "any or all persons may be excluded." This power was used to declare that all people of Japanese ancestry were excluded from the entire Pacific coast, including all of California and much of Oregon, Washington and Arizona, except for those in internment camps. In 1944, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the exclusion orders, while noting that the provisions that singled out people of Japanese ancestry were a separate issue outside the scope of the proceedings. The United States Census Bureau assisted the internment efforts by providing confidential neighborhood information on Japanese Americans. The Bureau's role was denied for decades, but was finally proven in 2007.

In 1980, President Jimmy Carter conducted an investigation to determine whether putting Japanese Americans into internment camps was justified well enough by the government. He appointed the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians to investigate the camps. The commission's report, named “Personal Justice Denied,” found little evidence of Japanese disloyalty at the time and recommended the government pay reparations to the survivors. They formed a payment of $20,000 to each individual internment camp survivor. These were the reparations passed by President Ronald Reagan.

In 1988, Congress passed and President Ronald Reagan signed legislation which apologized for the internment on behalf of the U.S. government. The legislation said that government actions were based on "race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership". The U.S. government eventually disbursed more than $1.6 billion in reparations to Japanese Americans who had been interned and their heirs.

<...>

Many internees lost irreplaceable personal property due to the restrictions on what could be taken into the camps. These losses were compounded by theft and destruction of items placed in governmental storage. A number of persons died or suffered for lack of medical care, and several were killed by sentries; James Wakasa, for instance, was killed at Topaz War Relocation Center, near the perimeter wire. Nikkei were prohibited from leaving the Military Zones during the last few weeks before internment, and only able to leave the camps by permission of the camp administrators.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_American_internment

We Japanese Americans must not forget our wartime internment

The degrading treatment of Japanese American families like mine is the theme of my new musical, Allegiance

Seventy years ago, US soldiers bearing bayoneted rifles came marching up to the front door of our family's home in Los Angeles, ordering us out. Our crime was looking like the people who had bombed Pearl Harbor a few months before. I'll never forget that day, nor the tears streaming down my mother's face as we were forcibly removed, herded off like animals, to a nearby race track. There, for weeks, we would live in a filthy horse stable while our "permanent" relocation camp was being constructed thousands of miles away in Arkansas, in a place called Rohwer.

I recently revisited Rohwer. Gone were the sentry towers, armed guards, barbed wire and crudely constructed barracks that defined our lives for many years. The swamp had been drained, the trees chopped down. Only miles and miles of cotton fields. The only thing remaining was the cemetery with two tall monuments.

Because I was a child, I didn't understand the depth of the degradation and deprivation my parents suffered, or how courageous and foresighted my mother had been to smuggle a sewing machine into camp, which permitted her to make modest curtains for our bare quarters. I didn't grasp what a blow the ordeal was to my father's role as provider, as he struggled to keep our family together. The family ate, bathed and did chores along with a whole community, pressed together in the confines of a makeshift camp, in the oppressive heat and mosquito-infested swamps of Arkansas.

Later my family would be shipped to a high-security camp in Tule Lake, California, constructed in a desolate, dry lake bed in the north of the state. Three layers of barbed-wire fences now confined us. Out of principle, my parents had refused to answer yes to a "loyalty" questionnaire the government had promulgated. It had asked whether they would serve in the US army and go wherever ordered, and whether they would swear allegiance to the US government and "forswear" loyalty to the Japanese emperor – as if any had ever sworn such loyalty in the first instance.

- more -

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/apr/27/we-japanese-americans-wartime-internment

WWII had brutal consequences on U.S. soil.

During World War II, six German saboteurs who secretly entered the United States on a mission to attack its civil infrastructure are executed by the United States for spying. Two other saboteurs who disclosed the plot to the FBI and aided U.S. authorities in their manhunt for their collaborators were imprisoned.

<...>

Burger and the rest of the Long Island team were picked up by June 22, and by June 27 the whole of the Florida team was arrested. To preserve wartime secrecy, President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered a special military tribunal consisting of seven generals to try the saboteurs. At the end of July, Dasch was sentenced to 30 years in prison, Burger was sentenced to hard labor for life, and the other six Germans were sentenced to die. The six condemned saboteurs were executed by electric chair in Washington, D.C., on August 8. In 1944, two other German spies were caught after a landing in Maine. No other instances of German sabotage within wartime America has come to light.

- more -

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/german-saboteurs-executed-in-washington


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Arrow 13 replies Author Time Post
Reply President Carter investigated FDR's Japanese American Internment. (Original post)
ProSense Feb 2013 OP
ProSense Feb 2013 #1
ProSense Feb 2013 #2
Bonobo Feb 2013 #3
ProSense Feb 2013 #4
Bonobo Feb 2013 #5
ProSense Feb 2013 #7
Bonobo Feb 2013 #8
ProSense Feb 2013 #9
Bonobo Feb 2013 #10
ProSense Feb 2013 #11
indepat Feb 2013 #6
ProSense Feb 2013 #12
ProSense Feb 2013 #13

Response to ProSense (Original post)

Tue Feb 5, 2013, 09:16 PM

1. Kick for

discussion.

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Response to ProSense (Original post)

Tue Feb 5, 2013, 09:25 PM

2. How about a kick for

inconvenient truth?

See no evil.

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Response to ProSense (Original post)

Tue Feb 5, 2013, 09:28 PM

3. I hope this is not meant to defend Obama's position on assassinations.

People have a right to defend themselves without being secretly assassinated. I am sorry it has come to the point where that is seen as something open to debate.

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Response to Bonobo (Reply #3)

Tue Feb 5, 2013, 09:34 PM

4. Do you think actions in the OP are defensible?

"I hope this is not meant to defend Obama's position on assassinations."

It's to highlight FDR's actions/


"People have a right to defend themselves without being secretly assassinated."

Who is being "secretly assassinated."?


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Response to ProSense (Reply #4)

Tue Feb 5, 2013, 09:37 PM

5. Answers.

I do not believe that imprisoning Japanese-Americans on the basis of their ethnic heritage was justified.

By "secretly assassinated", what I meant was ordered killed based on a secret meeting with secret evidence produced in secret and subject to laws that keep said proceedings secret.

As for who, there are any number of people that were ordered killed but it is difficult to say since it is secret. Presumably all the drone strikes are the result of such "deliberation".

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Response to Bonobo (Reply #5)

Tue Feb 5, 2013, 09:42 PM

7. When has

"By 'secretly assassinated', what I meant was ordered killed based on a secret meeting with secret evidence produced in secret and subject to laws that keep said proceedings secret. "

...the government ever announced plans to strike any target (military/terrorist) before hand? The notion that these strikes are going to be announced is absurd. These are also strikes on people who are known to be involved in terrorist activities. The full intelligence may not be known up front, but these people are not unknowns.

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Response to ProSense (Reply #7)

Tue Feb 5, 2013, 09:53 PM

8. Defining individual people not involved in warfare or military operations as "targets"

is what we are talking about here.

Also what we are talking about is the lack of accountability and judicial mechanisms.

Look, a military strike presupposes a military (security) threat. It is also generally against a group, not individuals. THAT is the line between a strike and an assassination.

What Obama is doing now is diluting the meaning of "threat" to the point where it means little and furthermore claiming that an individual's death lies at the discretion of the executive branch, even one not accused of a crime.

I can't believe we are debating this. What on Earth are you going to do or say when a Republican president does this to someone he perceives as or claims is a threat to our security?

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Response to Bonobo (Reply #8)

Tue Feb 5, 2013, 09:57 PM

9. They'd be

"Defining individual people not involved in warfare or military operations as 'targets' is what we are talking about here."

...targets in traditional warfare, and some seem to be making the justification for war, regardless of the casualty count.

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Response to ProSense (Reply #9)

Tue Feb 5, 2013, 10:03 PM

10. Enjoy the cherries you're picking. I am done. nt

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Response to Bonobo (Reply #10)

Tue Feb 5, 2013, 10:09 PM

11. No cherries, facts. n/t

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Response to ProSense (Original post)

Tue Feb 5, 2013, 09:39 PM

6. My wife's most memorable lecture in college (1954) was her constitutional law professor

discussing the referenced Supreme Court case (Korematsu vs. the U.S. 1944)) (the professor had clerked for Justice Frankfurter at the time of the case). She remembers the professor getting very emotional, with tears streaming down his cheeks, as he was unable to fully contain his outrage over the decision.

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Response to indepat (Reply #6)

Tue Feb 5, 2013, 11:00 PM

12. Not a proud moment in U.S. history. n/t

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Response to ProSense (Original post)

Wed Feb 6, 2013, 11:45 AM

13. Kick! n/t

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