Fri Jan 11, 2013, 08:58 AM
Jackpine Radical (45,274 posts)
A psychoanalyst speaks out on the Brennan CIA appointment
Brennan as CIA Director Will Put Obama's Reputation at Risk
By Stephen Soldz, Professor at the Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis
January 10, 2013
About Stephen Soldz:
Stephen Soldz is a professor at the Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis and a former president of Psychologists for Social Responsibility.
When the possible nomination of John Brennan as CIA director was floated in late 2008, my colleagues and I who had opposed the George W. Bush administration's torture program were aghast. As a high official in the Bush-era CIA, Brennan had defended the CIA's "enhanced interrogation" torture program in interviews, stating that these interrogations were conducted with "appropriate Department of Justice review." But as the infamous torture memos released by President Barack Obama demonstrate, Justice Department lawyers redefined "torture" idiosyncratically, to guarantee that the CIA's "enhanced techniques" would not fit the revised definition.
As President Obama's counterterrorism adviser over the past four years, Brennan has consistently opposed applying U.S. and international law to hold CIA and Bush administration officials accountable for authorizing and implementing torture. He helped to undercut the Nuremberg Principle, which states that no one is immune from prosecution following acts of human rights abuse. In this case, impunity for such abuses virtually guarantees that future administrations will feel safe again to adopt torture as policy.
Brennan also has been one of the key architects of the Obama administration's drone program of targeted assassinations, and in June 2011 he questionably claimed that over the previous year "there hasn't been a single collateral death because of the exceptional proficiency and precision of the capabilities that we've been able to develop." The use of drones as an instrument of foreign policy is a very dangerous development. It makes violence more likely because it offers the illusion of controlled targeting and because it removes those doing the killing from any direct risk of harm. Drones thus join the long history of weapons that appear to guarantee victory but in fact only encourage adversaries to adopt them as well, while developing innovative countermeasures.
Like the roles of president and Supreme Court justice, the role of CIA director is symbolic as well as functional. Even appearances of impropriety by officials compromise these roles. John Brennan's defense of the CIA's "enhanced interrogation" program, his opposition to indicting the facilitators of the program under U.S. and international law, and his advocacy of the drone program create a dismal image of the U.S. intelligence community both domestically and abroad. The appointment of Brennan as CIA director would pose a grave risk to the reputation and efficacy of the Obama administration. We encourage the Senate to reject his nomination.
10 replies, 1675 views
A psychoanalyst speaks out on the Brennan CIA appointment (Original post)
|Jackpine Radical||Jan 2013||OP|
|Solly Mack||Jan 2013||#3|
|Jackpine Radical||Jan 2013||#6|
|Jackpine Radical||Jan 2013||#8|
Response to Jackpine Radical (Original post)
Fri Jan 11, 2013, 09:21 AM
reteachinwi (579 posts)
1. Creating a dismal image of the U.S.
intelligence community was accomplished long ago. Rafael Correa, Ecuador's president, said that the U.S. is the only country that isn't concerned about a coup d'état because we don't have a U.S. embassy on our soil. He is mistaken in my opinion. Brennan is the next scoundrel in a long tradition.
Response to Jackpine Radical (Reply #6)
Fri Jan 11, 2013, 10:50 AM
AngryAmish (23,229 posts)
7. Well, a psychoanalysis finds psychoanalysis useful. Surprising.
Can't disprove the efficacy of psychoanalysis, therefore it is a faith, not science.
Response to AngryAmish (Reply #7)
Fri Jan 11, 2013, 10:58 AM
Jackpine Radical (45,274 posts)
8. In the first place, I'm not a psychoanalyst, if that's what you're saying.
Second, read these articles & get back to me:
Empirical Studies in Psychoanalysis
A. Empirical Studies of Efficacy and Effectiveness in Psychodynamic Treatments:
These studies aim primarily to measure the efficacy (i.e., under carefully controlled conditions) or effectiveness (i.e., under more generalizable conditions) of psychoanalytic treatments, including psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy.
Wallerstein, R.S. (1989) The Psychotherapy Research Project of the Menninger Foundation: an overview. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57 (2), 195-205.
Kantrowitz, J., Katz, A. & Paolitto, F. (1990) Follow-up of psychoanalysis five to ten years after termination: III. The relation between the resolution of the transference and the patient-analyst match. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 38, 655-678.
Fonagy, P., & Moran, G. S. (1991). Studies of the efficacy of child psychoanalysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 684-695.
Blatt, S. J. (1992). The differential effect of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis with anaclitic and introjective patients: The Menninger Psychotherapy Research Project revisited. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 40, 691-724.
Target, M., & Fonagy, P. (1994). The efficacy of psychoanalysis for children with emotional disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 361-371.
Bateman, A., & Fonagy, P. (1999). Effectiveness of partial hospitalization in the treatment of borderline personality disorder - a randomised control trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(10), 1563-1569.
Sandell, R., Blomberg, J., Lazar, A., Carlsson, J., Broberg, J., & Schubert, J. (2000). Varieties of long-term outcome among patients in psychoanalysis and long-term psychotherapy. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 81, 921-942.
Creed, F., Fernandes, L., Guthrie, E., Palmer, S., Ratcliffe, J., Read, N., et al. (2003). The cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy and paroxetine for severe irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 124(2), 303-317.
Leuzinger-Bohleber, M., Stuhr, U., Ruger, B., Beutel, M. (2003) How to study the quality of psychoanalytic treatments and their long-term effects on patients' well-being: a representative, multi-perspective follow-up study. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 84, 263-290.
Clarkin, J. F., Levy, K. N., Lenzenweger, M. F., & Kernberg, O. F. (2004). The Personality Disorders Institute / Borderline Personality Disorder Research Foundation randomized control trial for borderline personality disorder: Rationale, methods, and patient characteristics. Journal of Personality Disorders. 18 (1): 52-72.
Knekt, P., & Lindfors, O. (2004). A randomized trial of the effect of four forms of psychotherapy on depressive and anxiety disorders. Helsinki: Kela.
Leichsenring, F., Biskup, J., Kreische,R., & Staats, H. (2005) The Gottingen study of psychoanalytic therapy: first results. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 86, 433-455.
Vinnars, B., Barber, J. P., Norén, K., Gallop, R., & Weinryb, R. M. (2005). Manualized supportive-expressive psychotherapy versus nonmanualized community-delivered psychodynamic therapy for patients with personality disorders: Bridging efficacy and effectiveness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(10), 1933-1940.
Lingiardi, V., Shedler, J. & Gazzillo, F. (2006) Assessing Personality Change in Borderline Personality Disorder using the SWAP-200. Journal of Personality Assessment (86)1, 23-32.
Hilsenroth, M. J. (2007). A programmatic study of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy: assessment, process, outcome, and training. Psychotherapy Research, 17(1): 31-45
Levy, K. N., Meehan, K. B., Kelly, K. M., Reynoso, J. S., Weber, M., Clarkin, J. F., Kernberg, O. F. (in press) Change in attachment patterns and reflective function in a randomized controlled trial of Transference Focused Psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
Milrod, B., Leon, A. C., Busch, F., Rudden, M., Schwalberg, M., Clarkin, J., et al. (in press). The efficacy of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for panic disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry.
Reviews & Meta-analyses
Anderson, E., & Lambert, M. (1995). Short-Term Dynamically Oriented Psychotherapy: A Review and Meta-Analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 15, 503-514.
Galatzer-Levy, R. M., Bachrach, H., Skolnikoff, A., & Waldron, S., Jr. (2000). Does Psychoanalysis Work? New Haven: Yale University Press.
Fonagy, P., Jones, E. E., Kächele, H., Krause, R., Clarkin, J., Perron, R., Gerber, A., & Allison, E. (2001). An open door review of outcome studies in psychoanalysis (Second ed.). London: International Psychoanalytic Association. (download or order via http://eseries.ipa.org.uk/prev/research/R-outcome.htm)
Leichsenring, F. (2001) Comparative Effects of Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Depression: A Meta-analytic Approach. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 401-419.
Gottdiener, W. H., & Haslam, N. (2002). The benefits of individual psychotherapy for people diagnosed with schizophrenia: A meta-analytic review. Ethical Human Sciences and Services, 4, 163-187.
Leichsenring, F. & Leibing, E. (2003). The Effectiveness of Psychodynamic Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy in the Treatment of Personality Disorders: A Meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1223-1232.
Leichsenring, F., Rabung, S., & Leibing, E. (2004). The efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in specific psychiatric disorders: a meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 61(12), 1208-1216.
Fonagy, P., Roth, A., Higgitt, A. (2005). Psychodynamic psychotherapies: Evidence-based practice and clinical wisdom. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 69, 1-58.
Abbass AA, Henderson J, Kisely S., Hancock JT. (2006). Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapies for common mental disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Oct 84):CD004687
Gabbard, G. O., Gunderson, J. G., & Fonagy, P. (2002). The place of psychoanalytic treatments within psychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59 (6), 505-510 + commentaries.
Westen, D., Novotny, C. M., & Thompson-Brenner, H. (2004) The empirical status of empirically supported psychotherapies: Assumptions, findings, and reporting in controlled clinical trials. Psychological Bulletin. 130 (4): 631-663.
Westen and Weinberger (2004). When clinical description becomes statistical prediction. American Psychologist 59(7):595-613.
B. Empirical Studies of Psychoanalytic Process
These studies aim primarily to measure and explore the process of psychoanalytic treatments, at the level of individual interventions, sessions, or over the course of a treatments, and to examine the relationship between therapeutic technique and treatment outcome.
Dahl, H., & Teller, V. (1994). The characteristics, identification, and applications of FRAMES. Psychotherapy Research, 4(3&4), 253-276.
Shevrin, H., Bond, J. A., Brakel, L. A. W., Hertel, R. K., & Williams, W. J. (1996). Conscious and Unconscious Processes: Psychodynamic, Cognitive, and Neurophysiological Convergences. New York: Guilford Press.
Bucci, W. (1997). Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Science: A Multiple Code Theory. New York: Guilford Press.
Ablon, S. and Jones, E.E. (1998) How expert clinicians' prototypes of an ideal treatment correlate with outcome in psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Psychotherapy Research, 871-83).
Luborsky, L., & Crits-Christoph, P. (1998). Understanding Transference: The Core Conflictual Relationship Theme Method (Second ed.). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Freedman, N., Hoffenberg, J.D., Vorus, N. & Frosch, A. (1999) The effectiveness of psychoanalytic psychotherapy: The role of treatment duration, frequency of sessions, and the therapeutic relationship. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 47, 741-772.
Barber, J., et al., (2000). Alliance Predicts Patients’ Outcome Beyond In-Treatment Change Symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 1027-1032.
Blatt, S. J., & Shahar, G. (2004). Psychoanalysis - with whom, for what, and how? Comparisons with psychotherapy. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 52(2), 393-447.
Josephs, L., Andrews, E., Bernard, A., Fatzer, K., & Streich, S. (2004). Assessing change in analysis terminable. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 52, 1185-1214.
Ablon JS, Jones EE: On Analytic Process. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 2005; 53(2):541-568
Hřglend, P., Amlo, S., Marble, A., Bogwald, K. P., Sorbye, O., Sjaastad, M. C., et al. (2006). Analysis of the patient-therapist relationship in dynamic psychotherapy: an experimental study of transference interpretations. Am J Psychiatry, 163(10), 1739-1746.
Martin, D.J., Garske, J.P. & Davis, M.K. (2000) Relation of the therapeutic alliance with outcome and other variables: a meta analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68(3): 438-450.
Ackerman, S.J. & Hilsenroth, M.J. (2003) A review of therapist characteristics and techniques positively impacting the therapeutic alliance. Clinical Psychology Review 23, 1-33.
C. Empirical Studies of Psychoanalytic Concepts
These studies aim primarily to measure and explore specific psychoanalytic concepts, such as unconscious processes, defense mechanisms, attachment, and transference.
Shevrin, H., & Dickman, S. (1980). The psychological unconscious: A necessary assumption for all psychological theory? American Psychologist, 35, 421-434.
Silverman, L. H., & Weinberger, J. (1985). Mommy and I are one. Implications for psychotherapy. Am Psychol, 40(12), 1296-1308.
Andersen, S. M., & Baum, A. (1994). Transference in interpersonal relations: inferences and affect based on significant-other representations. J Pers, 62(4), 459-497.
Fonagy, P., Leigh, T., Steele, M., Steele, H., Kennedy, R., Mattoon, G., Target, M., & Gerber, A. (1996). The relation of attachment status, psychiatric classification, and response to psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 22-31.
Bornstein, Robert F. (1999) Source Amnesia, Misattribution, and the Power of Unconscious Perceptions and Memories. Psychoanalytic Psychology. 16(2):155-178
Wong, Philip S. (1999). Anxiety, signal anxiety, and unconscious anticipation: Neuroscientific evidence for an unconscious signal function in humans. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 47(3).
Shedler J (2002). A new language for psychoanalytic diagnosis. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association; 50(2):429-456
Shedler, J., & Westen, D. (2004). Refining DSM-IV Personality Disorder Diagnosis: Integrating science and practice. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1350-1365.
Betan, E., Heim, A. K., Zittel Conklin, C., & Westen, D. (2005). Countertransference phenomena and personality pathology in clinical practice: an empirical investigation. Am J Psychiatry, 162(5), 890-898.
Brakel LAW, Shevrin H: Anxiety, attributional thinking, and the primary process (2005). International Journal of Psychoanalysis; 86(6):1679-1693
Siefert, Caleb J., Hilsenroth, Mark J., Weinberger, Joel, Blagys, Matthew D., Ackerman, Steven J. (2006) The relationship of patient defensive functioning and alliance with therapist technique during short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. 13, 20–33.
Reviews & Meta-analyses
Kline, P. (1972). Fact and fantasy in Freudian theory. London: Methuen & Co.
Barron, J. W., Eagle, M. N., Wolitzky, D. L. (Eds.). (1992). Interface of psychoanalysis and psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Fisher, S., & Greenberg, R. P. (1977). The Scientific Credibility of Freud's Theories and Therapy. New York: Basic Books.
Grunbaum, A. (1984). The foundations of psychoanalysis. Berkeley, CA: University of CA Press.
Hardaway RA (1990). Subliminally activated symbiotic fantasies: facts and artifacts. Psychol Bull; 107(2):177-95
Weinberger, J., & Hardaway, R.A. (1990). Separating science from myth in subliminal psychodynamic activation. Clinical Psychology Review. 10(6), 1990, 727-756.
Bornstein, R.F. & Masling, J.M. Series on Empirical Studies of Psychoanalytical Theories. (1993, 1994, 1996, 1998)
Shevrin H (1995). Is psychoanalysis one science, two sciences, or no science at all? A discourse among friendly antagonists. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association; 4363-986
Fisher, S., & Greenberg, R. P. (1996). Freud Scientifically Reappraised: Testing the Theories and Therapy. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Stern, D. N. (1998). The process of therapeutic change involving implicit knowledge: Some implications of developmental observations for adult psychotherapy. Infant Mental Health Journal, 19(3), 300-308.
Westen, D. (1998). The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud: Toward a psychodynamically informed psychological science. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 333-371.
Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. O. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience: I. Conflict, compromise, and connectionism. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 50(1), 53-98.
Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. O. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience: II. Implications for theories of transference. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 50(1), 99-134.